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Sökning: WFRF:(Eastman M)

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1.
  • Villforth, C., et al. (författare)
  • Variability and stability in blazar jets on time-scales of years : optical polarization monitoring of OJ 287 in 2005-2009
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 402:3, s. 2087-2111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OJ 287 is a BL Lac object at redshift z = 0.306 that has shown double-peaked bursts at regular intervals of similar to 12 yr during the last similar to 40 yr. We analyse optical photopolarimetric monitoring data from 2005 to 2009, during which the latest double-peaked outburst occurred. The aim of this study is twofold: firstly, we aim to analyse variability patterns and statistical properties of the optical polarization light curve. We find a strong preferred position angle in optical polarization. The preferred position angle can be explained by separating the jet emission into two components: an optical polarization core and chaotic jet emission. The optical polarization core is stable on time-scales of years and can be explained as emission from an underlying quiescent jet component. The chaotic jet emission sometimes exhibits a circular movement in the Stokes plane. We find six such events, all on the time-scales of 10-20 d. We interpret these events as a shock front moving forwards and backwards in the jet, swiping through a helical magnetic field. Secondly, we use our data to assess different binary black hole models proposed to explain the regularly appearing double-peaked bursts in OJ 287. We compose a list of requirements a model has to fulfil to explain the mysterious behaviour observed in OJ 287. The list includes not only characteristics of the light curve but also other properties of OJ 287, such as the black hole mass and restrictions on accretion flow properties. We rate all existing models using this list and conclude that none of the models is able to explain all observations. We discuss possible new explanations and propose a new approach to understanding OJ 287. We suggest that both the double-peaked bursts and the evolution of the optical polarization position angle could be explained as a sign of resonant accretion of magnetic field lines, a 'magnetic breathing' of the disc.
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3.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Aggressive Behavior, Related Conduct Problems, and Variation in Genes Affecting Dopamine Turnover
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Aggressive Behavior. - 0096-140X .- 1098-2337. ; 36:3, s. 158-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and D beta H in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n = 182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n = 60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.
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5.
  • Kockum, I., et al. (författare)
  • Complex interaction between HLA DR and DQ in conferring risk for childhood type 1 diabetes
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunogenetics. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0960-7420 .- 1365-2370. ; 26:5, s. 361-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with HLA DR and DQ factors, but the primary risk alleles are difficult to identify because recombination events are rare in the DQ-DR region. The risk of HLA genotypes for type 1 diabetes was therefore studied in more than 420 incident new onset, population-based type 1 diabetes children and 340 age, sex and geographically matched controls from Sweden. A stepwise approach was used to analyse risk by relative and absolute risks, stratification analysis and the predispositional allele test. The strongest relative and absolute risks were observed for DQB1*02-DQA1*0501/DQB1*0302-DQA1*0301 heterozygotes (AR 1/46, P < 0.001) or the simultaneous presence of both DRB1*03 and DQB1*0302 (AR 1/52, P < 0.001). Stratification analysis showed that DQB1*0302 was more frequent among DRB1*04 patients than DRB1*04 controls (P < 0.001), while DRB1*03 was more frequent among both DQA1*0501 (P < 0.001) and DQB1*02 (P < 0.001) patients than respective controls. The predispositional allele test indicated that DRB1*03 (P < 0.001) would be the predominant risk factor on the DRB1*03-DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 haplotype. In contrast, although DQB1*0302 (P < 0.001) would be the predominant risk factor on the DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 haplotype, the predispositional allele test also showed that DRB1*0401, but no other DRB1*04 subtype, had an additive risk to that of DQB1*0302 (P < 0.002). It is concluded that the association between type 1 diabetes and HLA is due to a complex interaction between DR and DQ since (1) DRB1*03 was more strongly associated with the disease than DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 and (2) DRB1*0401 had an additive effect to DQB1*0302. The data from this population-based investigation suggest an independent role of DR in the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, perhaps by providing diseases-promoting transcomplementation molecules.
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6.
  • Adaptive Mobile Robotics : Proceedings Of The 15th International Conference On Climbing And Walking Robots And The Support Technologies For Mobile Machines, Baltimore, USA, 23–26 July 2012
  • 2012
  • Proceedings (redaktörskap) (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This book provides state-of-the-art scientific and engineering research findings and developments in the area of mobile robotics and associated support technologies. The book contains peer reviewed articles presented at the CLAWAR 2012 conference. Robots are no longer confined to industrial manufacturing environments. A great deal of interest is invested in the use of robots outside the factory environment. The CLAWAR conference series, established as a high profile international event, acts as a platform for dissemination of research and development findings and supports such a trend to address the current interest in mobile robotics to meet the needs of mankind in various sectors of the society. These include personal care, public health, services in the domestic, public and industrial environments. The editors of the book have extensive research experience and publications in the area of robotics in general and in mobile robotics specifically, and their experience is reflected in editing the contents of the book.
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7.
  • Rogers, Lisa M, et al. (författare)
  • Palmitate induces apoptotic cell death and inflammasome activation in human placental macrophages.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Placenta. - 1532-3102. ; 90, s. 45-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is an increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases worldwide. Metabolic diseases such as obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increasingly affect women during pregnancy, which can harm pregnancy outcomes and the long-term health and wellbeing of exposed offspring. Both obesity and GDM have been associated with proinflammatory effects within the placenta, the critical organ governing fetal development.The purpose of these studies was to model, in vitro, the effects of metabolic stress (high levels of glucose, insulin and saturated lipids) on placental macrophage biology, since these cells are the primary innate immune phagocyte within the placenta with roles in governing maternofetal immune tolerance and antimicrobial host defense. Macrophages were isolated from the villous core of term, human placentae delivered through nonlaboring, elective Cesarean sections and exposed to combinations of elevated glucose (30 mM), insulin (10 nM) and the saturated lipid palmitic acid (palmitate, 0.4 mM).We found that palmitate alone induced the activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in placental macrophages, which was associated with increased interleukin 1 beta release and an increase in apoptotic cell death. Glucose and insulin neither provoked these effects nor augmented the impact of palmitate itself.Our findings confirm an impact of saturated fat on placental macrophage immune activation and could be relevant to the impact of metabolic stress in vivo.
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8.
  • Boustedt, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • It seemed like a good idea at the time
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: SIGCSE '08. - 9781595937995 ; , s. 528-529
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We often learn of successful pedagogical experiments, but we seldom hear of the the ones that failed. For this special session we solicited submissions from the SIGCSE membership, selected the best from among these, and will have presentations at the session by the selected authors. Our contributions describe pedagogical approaches that seemed to be good ideas but turned out as failures. Contributors will describe their pedagogical experiment, the rationale for the experiment, evidence of failure, and lessons learned.
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9.
  • Flores, Samuel Coulbourn, et al. (författare)
  • Fast Flexible Modeling of RNA Structure Using Internal Coordinates
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology & Bioinformatics. - 1545-5963 .- 1557-9964. ; 8:5, s. 1247-1257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Modeling the structure and dynamics of large macromolecules remains a critical challenge. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are expensive because they model every atom independently, and are difficult to combine with experimentally derived knowledge. Assembly of molecules using fragments from libraries relies on the database of known structures and thus may not work for novel motifs. Coarse-grained modeling methods have yielded good results on large molecules but can suffer from difficulties in creating more detailed full atomic realizations. There is therefore a need for molecular modeling algorithms that remain chemically accurate and economical for large molecules, do not rely on fragment libraries, and can incorporate experimental information. RNABuilder works in the internal coordinate space of dihedral angles and thus has time requirements proportional to the number of moving parts rather than the number of atoms. It provides accurate physics-based response to applied forces, but also allows user-specified forces for incorporating experimental information. A particular strength of RNABuilder is that all Leontis-Westhof basepairs can be specified as primitives by the user to be satisfied during model construction. We apply RNABuilder to predict the structure of an RNA molecule with 160 bases from its secondary structure, as well as experimental information. Our model matches the known structure to 10.2 Angstroms RMSD and has low computational expense.
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10.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Aggressive behaviour, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Aggressive Behavior. - 0096-140X .- 1098-2337. ; 36:3, s. 158-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and DβH) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) “troubled-behavior-free” boys, n=182; and (b) “troubled-behavior” boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.
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