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Sökning: WFRF:(Edmark Karin)

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  • Edmark, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of attending an independent upper secondary school : Evidence from Sweden using school ranking data
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Economics of Education Review. - 0272-7757 .- 1873-7382. ; 84, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the 1990s, the Swedish education market has gone through a dramatic transformation due to the introduction of voucher-funded independent schools. We make use of data on school applications to condition on student preferences for independent versus public education, and estimate a positive relationship between independent upper secondary school attendance and grades, graduation rates, and post-secondary education. We however also find strong indications of more lenient grading standards in independent schools, especially in schools organized as for-profit entities and in schools with a low share of qualified teachers. Our results suggest that, although independent school attendance seems to benefit the individual students in terms of higher grades and increased transition to post-secondary studies, grade inflation in the Swedish upper secondary independent schools may be a serious problem.
  • Angelov, Nikolay, et al. (författare)
  • När skolan själv får välja – en ESO-rapport om friskolornas etableringsmönster
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • I rapporten analyseras vilka faktorer som påverkar var friskolor väljer att etablera sig.Rapporten konstaterar att friskolor oftare etableras i områden med många högutbildade – men också i invandrartäta områden. I kommuner som styrs av en vänstermajoritet etableras färre friskolor jämfört med i andra kommuner. Rapporten visar också att förväntan om höga intäkter och låga lokalkostnader tycks spela roll när icke-vinstsyftande friskolor väljer var de ska etablera sig. För de vinstsyftande skolorna verkar däremot de ekonomiska förutsättningarna inte påverka etableringen.För att med större säkerhet kunna säga något om hur kommunernas ersättning till friskolorna påverkar var nya friskolor etableras behövs bättre data. Det är en brist att denna information saknas i Sverige, ett land med världens kanske mest långtgående skolpengssystem.
  • Dadgar, Iman, 1982- (författare)
  • Essays on the economics of education and health
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Study I: This paper investigates the effect of the academic ordinal rank position of Swedish grade 9 students relative to their school peers on future educational achievement and adult earnings. The results show evidence of a positive impact of being more highly ranked in the class, and the effects are concentrated to the top and the bottom of the ordinal rank distribution. High-ability students from low-income families gained the most from having a higher ordinal rank in grade 9. The results contrast with US findings, which suggest a similar impact across the rank distribution.Study II: This paper studies the effect of a reform that increased school-level autonomy in determining how to allocate time between different subjects in Sweden. It evaluates the impact of the reform using registry data in a Difference-in-Differences framework. The results suggest that students' educational outcomes, including the subsequent choice of educational track, were not affected by the reform. However, there are some indications that students in large schools and students from low socioeconomic households may have benefited from the reform. Study III: Research suggests that increases in gross domestic product (GDP) lead to increases in traffic deaths plausibly due to the increased road traffic induced by an expanding economy. However, there also seems to exist a long-term effect of economic growth that is manifested in improved traffic safety and reduced rates of traffic deaths. Previous studies focus on either the short-term, procyclical effect, or the long-term, protective effect. The aim of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term effects jointly in order to assess the net impact of GDP on traffic mortality. We performed error correction modelling to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of GDP on the traffic death rates. The estimates from the error correction modelling for the entire study period suggested that a one-unit increase (US$1000) in GDP/capita yields an instantaneous short-term increase in the traffic death rate by 0.58 (p<0.001), and a long-term decrease equal to −1.59 (p<0.001). However, period-specific analyses revealed a structural break implying that the procyclical effect outweighs the protective effect in the period prior to 1976, whereas the reverse is true for the period 1976–2011. Study IV: Unemployment might affect several risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death globally. The characterization of the relation between these two phenomena is thus of great significance from a public-health perspective. The main aim of this study was to estimate the association between the unemployment rate and mortality from CVD and from coronary heart disease (CHD). We used time-series data for 32 countries spanning the period 1960–2015. We applied two alternative modelling strategies: (a) error correction modelling, provided that the data were co-integrated; and (b) first-difference modelling in the absence of co-integration. Separate models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection. We also performed country-specific ARIMA-analyses. Because the data did not prove to be co-integrated, we applied first-difference modelling. Our findings, based on data from predominantly affluent countries, suggest that heart-disease mortality does not respond to economic fluctuations.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 120:1, s. 41-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the causal link between the ethnic diversity in a society and its inhabitants' preferences for redistribution. We exploit exogenous variation in immigrant shares stemming from a nationwide program placing refugees in municipalities throughout Sweden during 1985-94 and match data on refugee placement to panel survey data on inhabitants of the receiving municipalities. We find significant, negative effects of increased immigration on the support for redistribution. The effect is especially pronounced among high-income earners. We also establish that estimates from earlier studies failing to identify causal effects are likely to be positively biased (i.e., less negative).
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution : Reply
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • In a comment to Dahlberg, Edmark and Lundqvist (2012), Nekby and Pettersson-Lidbom (2012) argue (i) that the refugee placement program should be measured with contracted rather than actually placed refugees, and claim that the correlation between the two measures is insignificant and close to zero; (ii) that instead of using the rotating individual panel, we should have used the full cross-sections in combination with municipality fixed effects; and (iii) that immigrants should be dened based on country of birth rather than citizenship.In this response, we discuss why we (i) do not agree that contracted refugees is the preferred measure, and we show that the correlation between the two measures is highly significant and large; (ii) do not agree that the full cross-sections can be used; and (iii) do agree that defining immigrants according to country of birth is preferred. In a re-analysis, the conclusion from Dahlberg, Edmark and Lundqvist (2012) that ethnic diversity has a statistically and economically significant negative effect on preferences for redistribution is only marginally affected.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • In recent decades, the immigration of workers and refugees to Europe has increased substantially, and the composition of the population in many countries has consequently become much more heterogeneous in terms of ethnic background. If people exhibit in-group bias in the sense of being more altruistic to one's own kind, such increased heterogeneity will lead to reduced support for redistribution among natives. This paper exploits a nationwide program placing refugees in municipalities throughout Sweden during the period 1985 - 94 to isolate exogenous variation in immigrant shares. We match data on refugee placement to panel survey data on inhabitants of the receiving municipalities to estimate the causal effects of increased immigrant shares on preferences for redistribution. The results show that a larger immigrant population leads to less support for redistribution in the form of preferred social bene t levels. This reduction in support is especially pronounced for respondents with high income and wealth. We also establish that OLS estimators that do not properly deal with endogeneity problems - as in earlier studies - are likely to yield positively biased (i.e., less negative) eects of ethnic heterogeneity on preferences for redistribution.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic Diversity and Preferencesfor Redistribution : Reply
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0347-0520 .- 1467-9442. ; 119:2, s. 288-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this reply, we briefly respond to three of the issues raised: possible measures of preferences for redistribution, sample selection bias, and the use of the refugee placement policy as an instrument for immigration.
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