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Sökning: WFRF:(Ekblom Robert)

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  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
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2.
  • Cardinale, Daniele A., 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of Hyperoxic-Supplemented High-Intensity Interval Training on Hemotological and Muscle Mitochondrial Adaptations in Trained Cyclists.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-042X .- 1664-042X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hyperoxia (HYPER) increases O2 carrying capacity resulting in a higher O2 delivery to the working muscles during exercise. Several lines of evidence indicate that lactate metabolism, power output, and endurance are improved by HYPER compared to normoxia (NORM). Since HYPER enables a higher exercise power output compared to NORM and considering the O2 delivery limitation at exercise intensities near to maximum, we hypothesized that hyperoxic-supplemented high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would upregulate muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and enhance endurance cycling performance compared to training in normoxia. Methods: 23 trained cyclists, age 35.3 ± 6.4 years, body mass 75.2 ± 9.6 kg, height 179.8 ± 7.9 m, and VO2max 4.5 ± 0.7 L min-1 performed 6 weeks polarized and periodized endurance training on a cycle ergometer consisting of supervised HIIT sessions 3 days/week and additional low-intensity training 2 days/week. Participants were randomly assigned to either HYPER (FIO2 0.30; n = 12) or NORM (FIO2 0.21; n = 11) breathing condition during HIIT. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria together with maximal and submaximal VO2, hematological parameters, and self-paced endurance cycling performance were tested pre- and posttraining intervention. Results: Hyperoxic training led to a small, non-significant change in performance compared to normoxic training (HYPER 6.0 ± 3.7%, NORM 2.4 ± 5.0%; p = 0.073, ES = 0.32). This small, beneficial effect on the self-paced endurance cycling performance was not explained by the change in VO2max (HYPER 1.1 ± 3.8%, NORM 0.0 ± 3.7%; p = 0.55, ES = 0.08), blood volume and hemoglobin mass, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (permeabilized fibers: HYPER 27.3 ± 46.0%, NORM 16.5 ± 49.1%; p = 0.37, ES = 3.24 and in isolated mitochondria: HYPER 26.1 ± 80.1%, NORM 15.9 ± 73.3%; p = 0.66, ES = 0.51), or markers of mitochondrial content which were similar between groups post intervention. Conclusions: This study showed that 6 weeks hyperoxic-supplemented HIIT led to marginal gain in cycle performance in already trained cyclists without change in VO2max, blood volume, hemoglobin mass, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, or exercise efficiency. The underlying mechanisms for the potentially meaningful performance effects of hyperoxia training remain unexplained and may raise ethical questions for elite sport.
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3.
  • Cardinale, Daniele A., 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Muscle mass and inspired oxygen influence oxygen extraction at maximal exercise : role of mitochondrial oxygen affinity.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1748-1708 .- 1748-1716. ; 225:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM:We examined the Fick components together with mitochondrial O2 affinity (p50mito ) in defining O2 extraction and O2 uptake during exercise with large and small muscle mass during normoxia (NORM) and hyperoxia (HYPER).METHODS:Seven individuals performed two incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer (BIKE) and two on a one-legged knee extension ergometer (KE) in NORM or HYPER. Leg blood flow and VO2 were determined by thermodilution and the Fick method. Maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration (OXPHOS) and p50mito were measured ex vivo in isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial excess capacity in the leg was determined from OXPHOS in permeabilized fibers and muscle mass measured with magnetic resonance imaging in relation to peak leg O2 delivery.RESULTS:The ex vivo p50mito increased from 0.06±0.02 to 0.17±0.04 kPa with varying substrate supply and O2 flux rates from 9.84±2.91 to 16.34±4.07 pmol O2 ·s-1 ·μg-1 respectively. O2 extraction decreased from 83% in BIKE to 67% in KE as a function of a higher O2 delivery, and lower mitochondrial excess capacity. There was a significant relationship between O2 extraction and mitochondrial excess capacity and p50mito that was unrelated to blood flow and mean transit time.CONCLUSION:O2 extraction varies with mitochondrial respiration rate, p50mito and O2 delivery. Mitochondrial excess capacity maintains a low p50mito which enhances O2 diffusion from microvessels to mitochondria during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Cardinale, Daniele A., 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Superior Intrinsic Mitochondrial Respiration in Women Than in Men.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - 1664-042X .- 1664-042X. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sexual dimorphism is apparent in humans, however, to date no studies have investigated mitochondrial function focusing on intrinsic mitochondrial respiration (i.e., mitochondrial respiration for a given amount of mitochondrial protein) and mitochondrial oxygen affinity (p50mito) in relation to biological sex in human. A skeletal muscle biopsy was donated by nine active women, and ten men matched for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and by nine endurance trained men. Intrinsic mitochondrial respiration, assessed in isolated mitochondria, was higher in women compared to men when activating complex I (CIP) and complex I+II (CI+IIP) (p < 0.05), and was similar to trained men (CIP, p = 0.053; CI+IIP, p = 0.066). Proton leak and p50mito were higher in women compared to men independent of VO2max. In conclusion, significant novel differences in mitochondrial oxidative function, intrinsic mitochondrial respiration and p50mito exist between women and men. These findings may represent an adaptation in the oxygen cascade in women to optimize muscle oxygen uptake to compensate for a lower oxygen delivery during exercise.
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5.
  • Ekblom, R, et al. (författare)
  • Female choice and male humoral immune response in the lekking great snipe (Gallinago media)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1045-2249 .- 1465-7279. ; 16:2, s. 346-351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parasites and diseases constitute major evolutionary forces in many natural populations, and thus having an efficient immune defense to resist infections is crucial for many organisms. Properties of the immune response may also influence mate choice decisions in many animals. Theory predicts several advantages for females when choosing males with superior immune systems. These benefits can be both direct (e.g. increased paternal care and reduced disease transmission) and indirect (good genes). We have investigated female choice with respect to antibody response to two novel antigens in males of a lekking bird, the great snipe (Gallinago media). Because of the lek mating system, female choice probably mainly incurs indirect (genetic) rather than direct benefits. Males responded to vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids by producing specific antibodies to both antigens. Triggering the immune system had no negative impact on display activities or survival. Males that were chosen by females as mates had on average higher antibody response to the tetanus antigen than their neighbors. We did not, however, find any covariance between the strength of the antibody response and male mating success.
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6.
  • Warren, Wesley C, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of a songbird
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 757-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The zebra finch is an important model organism in several fields with unique relevance to human neuroscience. Like other songbirds, the zebra finch communicates through learned vocalizations, an ability otherwise documented only in humans and a few other animals and lacking in the chicken-the only bird with a sequenced genome until now. Here we present a structural, functional and comparative analysis of the genome sequence of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), which is a songbird belonging to the large avian order Passeriformes. We find that the overall structures of the genomes are similar in zebra finch and chicken, but they differ in many intrachromosomal rearrangements, lineage-specific gene family expansions, the number of long-terminal-repeat-based retrotransposons, and mechanisms of sex chromosome dosage compensation. We show that song behaviour engages gene regulatory networks in the zebra finch brain, altering the expression of long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors and their targets. We also show evidence for rapid molecular evolution in the songbird lineage of genes that are regulated during song experience. These results indicate an active involvement of the genome in neural processes underlying vocal communication and identify potential genetic substrates for the evolution and regulation of this behaviour.
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7.
  • Balakrishnan, Christopher N., et al. (författare)
  • Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Biology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1741-7007 .- 1741-7007. ; 8, s. 29-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results: The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion: The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the history of the MHC in birds, and highlight striking differences in MHC structure and organization among avian lineages.
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8.
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9.
  • Cardinale, Daniele A., et al. (författare)
  • Superior Intrinsic Mitochondria Respiration in Women Than in Men
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - 1664-042X .- 1664-042X. ; 9:AUG
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sexual dimorphism is apparent in humans, however, to date no studies have investigated mitochondria! function focusing on intrinsic mitochondrial respiration (i.e., mitochondrial respiration for a given amount of mitochondrial protein) and mitochondrial oxygen affinity (p50(mito)) in relation to biological sex in human. A skeletal muscle biopsy was donated by nine active women, and ten men matched for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and by nine endurance trained men. Intrinsic mitochondrial respiration, assessed in isolated mitochondria, was higher in women compared to men when activating complex I (Cl-p) and complex I+II(Cl+IIp) (p < 0.05), and was similar to trained men (Cl-p, p = 0.053; Cl+IIp, p = 0.066). Proton leak and p50(mito) to were higher in women compared to men independent of VO2max. In conclusion, significant novel differences in mitochondrial oxidative function, intrinsic mitochondrial respiration and p50(mito) to exist between women and men. These findings may represent an adaptation in the oxygen cascade in women to optimize muscle oxygen uptake to compensate for a lower oxygen delivery during exercise.
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10.
  • Cardinale, Daniele, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Is the Ekblom-Bak Test a valid screening tool for Vo2peak in highly active individuals?
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionMaximal oxygen consumption testing is suggested to be regularly included between training blocks of athletes in order to monitor changes in fitness throughout the season. However, despite the good reliability and validity of this physiological test, an expensive metabolic chart, and expert personnel are needed. Further, the maximal effort needed by the athlete makes this test difficult to be performed routinely. Therefore, it is important to develop valid tools that are also feasible for the estimation of the maximal oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to validate the Ekblom-Bak test (EBT) (Ekblom-Bak et al., 2014) against an incremental test measuring peak VO2 by gas exchange on a cycle ergometer in well-trained individuals.Methods33 highly active individuals aged 34.5±6.6yrs (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) body mass 74.5±12kg, and height; 178± 9.3m) participated in the study. The EBT test was performed prior to the incremental exercise test to peak effort on a cycle ergometer for VO2peak assessment. Oxygen uptake was determined by an automated measuring system for oxygen uptake with a mixing chamber (OxygenPro, Jaeger GmbH, Germany) validated against the Douglas bag method resulting in a typical error of 2%. The mean difference and standard deviation of the differences between the EBT and measured VO2peak was calculated with Bland-Altman analysis.ResultsThe measured mean and SD VO2peak was 4.1±0.8 L•min-1 for the whole group (male 4.4±0.6 L•min-1 and female 2.9±0.5 L•min-1). The mean differences between measured and estimated (EBT) VO2peak was 0.05 L•min-1 (95% CI; -0.15 to 0.25). CV was 13.2% in the whole group with no significant differences between sexes. For individuals with a VO2peak within the valid range of the EBT (VO2max 1.56 to 4.49 L•min-1, n=23), the mean differences between measured and estimate VO2peak was -0.22 L•min-1 (95% CI; -0.36 to -0.08), resulting in a CV of 8.2%. For individuals above the valid limit (n=10), the mean difference was 0.68L•min-1(95% CI; 0.47 to 0.98) with a CV of 6.9%. Discussion The Ekblom-Bak test is an easily applied and inexpensive screening tool for a population of highly active individuals within the current validity range, and may be used routinely in monitoring fitness.ReferencesEkblom-Bak E, Björkman F, Hellenius ML, Ekblom B (2014). Scand J Med Sci Sports, 24(2), 319-326
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