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  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
  • Casar-Borota, O., et al. (författare)
  • Corticotroph Aggressive Pituitary Tumors and Carcinomas Frequently Harbor ATRX Mutations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 106:4, s. 1183-1194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Aggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) are characterized by unusually rapid growth and lack of response to standard treatment. About 1% to 2% develop metastases being classified as pituitary carcinomas (PCs). For unknown reasons, the corticotroph tumors are overrepresented among APTs and PCs. Mutations in the alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene, regulating chromatin remodeling and telomere maintenance, have been implicated in the development of several cancer types, including neuroendocrine tumors. Objective: To study ATRX protein expression and mutational status of the ATRX gene in APTs and PCs. Design: We investigated ATRX protein expression by using immunohistochemistry in 30 APTs and 18 PCs, mostly of Pit-1 and T-Pit cell lineage. In tumors lacking ATRX immunolabeling, mutational status of the ATRX gene was explored. Results: Nine of the 48 tumors (19%) demonstrated lack of ATRX immunolabelling with a higher proportion in patients with PCs (5/18; 28%) than in those with APTs (4/30;13%). Lack of ATRX was most common in the corticotroph tumors, 7/22 (32%), versus tumors of the Pit-1 lineage, 2/24 (8%). Loss-of-function ATRX mutations were found in all 9 ATRX immunonegative cases: nonsense mutations (n = 4), frameshift deletions (n = 4), and large deletions affecting 22-28 of the 36 exons (n = 3). More than 1 ATRX gene defect was identified in 2 PCs. Conclusion: ATRX mutations occur in a subset of APTs and are more common in corticotroph tumors. The findings provide a rationale for performing ATRX immunohistochemistry to identify patients at risk of developing aggressive and potentially metastatic pituitary tumors.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:12, s. 1710-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10 -7) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10 -3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10 -5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
  • Bosworth, H. B., et al. (författare)
  • Medication adherence: a call for action
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - 1097-6744. ; 162:3, s. 412-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Poor adherence to efficacious cardiovascular-related medications has led to considerable morbidity, mortality, and avoidable health care costs. This article provides results of a recent think-tank meeting in which various stakeholder groups representing key experts from consumers, community health providers, the academic community, decision-making government officials (Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, etc), and industry scientists met to evaluate the current status of medication adherence and provide recommendations for improving outcomes. Below, we review the magnitude of the problem of medication adherence, prevalence, impact, and cost. We then summarize proven effective approaches and conclude with a discussion of recommendations to address this growing and significant public health issue of medication nonadherence.
  • Granger, B. B., et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to candesartan and placebo and outcomes in chronic heart failure in the CHARM programme: double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 366:9502, s. 2005-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an important cause of hospital admission and death. Poor adherence to medication is common in some chronic illnesses and might reduce the population effectiveness of proven treatments. Because little is known about adherence in patients with CHF and about the consequences of non-adherence, we assessed the association between adherence and clinical outcome in the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity) programme. METHODS: CHARM was a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial, comparing the effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan with placebo in 7599 patients with CHF. Median follow-up was 38 months. The proportion of time patients took more than 80% of their study medication was defined as good adherence and 80% or less as poor adherence. We used a Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adherence as a time-dependent covariate in the model, to examine the association between adherence and mortality in the candesartan and placebo groups. FINDINGS: We excluded 187 patients because of missing information on adherence. In the time-dependent Cox regression model, after adjustment for predictive factors (demographics, physiological and severity-of-illness variables, smoking history, and number of concomitant medications), good adherence was associated with lower all-cause mortality in all patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.75, p<0.0001). The adjusted HR for good adherence was similar in the candesartan (0.66, 0.55-0.81, p<0.0001) and placebo (0.64, 0.53-0.78, p<0.0001) groups. INTERPRETATION: Good adherence to medication is associated with a lower risk of death than poor adherence in patients with CHF, irrespective of assigned treatment. This finding suggests that adherence is a marker for adherence to effective treatments other than study medications, or to other adherence behaviours that affect outcome. Understanding these factors could provide an opportunity for new interventions, including those aimed at improving adherence.
  • Granger, B. B., et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to medication according to sex and age in the CHARM programme
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - 1879-0844. ; 11:11, s. 1092-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Although many patients with heart failure have incomplete adherence to prescribed medications, predisposing factors remain unclear. This analysis investigates factors associated with adherence, with particular emphasis on age and sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multivariable regression analysis of 7599 heart failure patients from the CHARM trial was done to evaluate factors associated with adherence. Adherence was measured as the proportion of time patients took more than 80% of study medication. The mean age was 66 years (SD 11) and 31.5% (n = 2400) were women. Women were slightly less adherent than men (87.3 vs. 89.8%, P = 0.002), even in adjusted, multivariable models (treatment, P = 0.006; placebo P = 0.004; and overall P < 0.001). However, all-cause mortality was lower in women (21.5%) than in men (25.3%) (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86; P < 0.001), but patients with a low adherence regardless of sex had a higher mortality. Age, severity of heart failure, number of medications, and smoking status were not associated with adherence. CONCLUSION: Women, particularly those <75 years of age, were less likely to be adherent in this large sample of patients with symptomatic heart failure. Understanding factors associated with adherence may provide opportunities for intervention.
  • Dahlqvist, J., et al. (författare)
  • Identification and functional characterization of a novel susceptibility locus for small vessel vasculitis with MPO-ANCA
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0324 .- 1462-0332.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To identify and characterize genetic loci associated with the risk of developing ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Methods Genetic association analyses were performed after Illumina sequencing of 1853 genes and subsequent replication with genotyping of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total cohort of 1110 Scandinavian cases with granulomatosis with polyangiitis or microscopic polyangiitis, and 1589 controls. A novel AAV-associated single nucleotide polymorphism was analysed for allele-specific effects on gene expression using luciferase reporter assay. Results PR3-ANCA(+) AAV was significantly associated with two independent loci in the HLA-DPB1/HLA-DPA1 region [rs1042335, P = 6.3 x 10(-61), odds ratio (OR) 0.10; rs9277341, P = 1.5 x 10(-44), OR 0.22] and with rs28929474 in the SERPINA1 gene (P = 2.7 x 10(-10), OR 2.9). MPO-ANCA(+) AAV was significantly associated with the HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 locus (rs9274619, P = 5.4 x 10(-25), OR 3.7) and with a rare variant in the BACH2 gene (rs78275221, P = 7.9 x 10(-7), OR 3.0), the latter a novel susceptibility locus for MPO-ANCA(+) granulomatosis with polyangiitis/microscopic polyangiitis. The rs78275221-A risk allele reduced luciferase gene expression in endothelial cells, specifically, as compared with the non-risk allele. Conclusion We identified a novel susceptibility locus for MPO-ANCA(+) AAV and propose that the associated variant is of mechanistic importance, exerting a regulatory function on gene expression in specific cell types.
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