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  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:12, s. 1710-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10 -7) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10 -3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10 -5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
  • Zannad, F., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical outcome endpoints in heart failure trials: a European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association consensus document
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - : Wiley. - 1388-9842 .- 1879-0844. ; 15:10, s. 1082-1094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endpoint selection is a critically important step in clinical trial design. It poses major challenges for investigators, regulators, and study sponsors, and it also has important clinical and practical implications for physicians and patients. Clinical outcomes of interest in heart failure trials include all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, relevant non-fatal morbidity (e.g. all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization), composites capturing both morbidity and mortality, safety, symptoms, functional capacity, and patient-reported outcomes. Each of these endpoints has strengths and weaknesses that create controversies regarding which is most appropriate in terms of clinical importance, sensitivity, reliability, and consistency. Not surprisingly, a lack of consensus exists within the scientific community regarding the optimal endpoint(s) for both acute and chronic heart failure trials. In an effort to address these issues, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (HFA-ESC) convened a group of expert heart failure clinical investigators, biostatisticians, regulators, and pharmaceutical industry scientists (Nice, France, 12-13 February 2012) to evaluate the challenges of defining heart failure endpoints in clinical trials and to develop a consensus framework. This report summarizes the group's recommendations for achieving common views on heart failure endpoints in clinical trials.
  • Rodriguez, L. , V, et al. (författare)
  • Doubly-magic character of Sn-132 studied via electromagnetic moments of( 13)(3)Sn
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - : American Physical Society. - 2469-9985 .- 2469-9993. ; 102:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first measurement of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment of the exotic nucleus Sn-133 by high-resolution laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. These, in combination with state-of-the-art shell-model calculations, demonstrate the single-particle character of the ground state of this short-lived isotope and, hence, the doubly-magic character of its immediate neighbor Sn-132. The trend of the electromagnetic moments along the N = 83 isotonic chain, now enriched with the values of tin, are discussed on the basis of realistic shell-model calculations.
  • Ekberg, O., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Barium Sulfate Contrast Medium on Rheology and Sensory Texture Attributes in a Model Food
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - : SAGE Publications. - 0284-1851 .- 1600-0455. ; 50:2, s. 131-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO4), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. Purpose: To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango puree were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. Material and Methods: This study evaluated four food samples based on mango puree, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. Results: The sensory texture properties of mango puree were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO4 as extensional viscosity. Conclusion: Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango puree has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.
  • Mukai, M., et al. (författare)
  • In-gas-cell laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of Ir 196,197,198
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - : American Physical Society. - 2469-9985 .- 2469-9993. ; 102:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyperfine structure (HFS) measurements of neutron-rich iridium isotopes Ir196,197,198 (Z=77,N=119-121) were performed via in-gas-cell laser resonance ionization spectroscopy at the KEK Isotope Separation System. Magnetic dipole moments μ and isotope shifts were determined from the HFS spectra. The variation of mean-square charge radii and quadrupole deformation parameters of these isotopes were evaluated from the isotope shifts. The μ value of Ir197 agreed with a theoretical value based on the strong coupling model, and the Ir nucleus was interpreted as prolately deformed by the theoretical calculations. The μ values of Ir196,198 were also compared with semiempirical values calculated based on the strong coupling model. From the comparison, we can suggest the possible spin values of Iπ=1,2- for Ir196 and Iπ=1- for Ir198.
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