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Sökning: WFRF:(Ekström Björn)

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  • Ebbesson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Daily endocrine profiles in parr and smolt Atlantic salmon.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. - : Elsevier. - 1531-4332. ; 151, s. 698-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate possible mechanisms behind the endocrine control of parr-smolt transformation, the daily plasma profiles in thyroid hormones (TH; free thyroxine (FT(4)), total thyroxine (TT(4)), and total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT(3))), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol were studied in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts under simulated-natural winter (8 L:16D) and spring (16.5 L:7.5D) photoperiods, respectively. Overall, TT(4), TT(3) and GH levels were higher in smolts than in parr, whereas FT(4) levels fluctuated within the same range in parr and smolts. Significant diurnal changes in plasma TH were present in parr. Both FT(4) and TT(4) levels increased during the photophase and decreased during the scotophase, while TT(3) levels followed an inverse pattern. Growth hormone showed no significant changes in parr. Changes in FT(4), TT(4), GH, and cortisol, but not TT(3), levels, were observed in smolts with peak levels during both the photophase and scotophase for FT(4), TT(4) and GH. Plasma cortisol was not assayed in parr but in smolts the peaks were associated with dusk and dawn. In addition to the general increases in TH, GH and cortisol, the distinct endocrine differences in nighttime levels between parr in the winter and smolts in the spring suggest different interactions between TH, GH, cortisol and melatonin at these different time points. These spring scotophase endocrine profiles may represent synergistic hormone interactions that promote smolt development, similar to the synergistic endocrine interactions shown to accelerate anuran metamorphosis. The variations in these diurnal rhythms between parr and smolts may represent part of the endocrine mechanism for the translation of seasonal information during salmon smoltification.
  • Ekström, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose-lowering treatment and clinical results in 163 121 patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational study from the Swedish national diabetes register
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 14:8, s. 717-726
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To analyse clinical characteristics and treatment results in unselected type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, with non-pharmacological treatment as well as the most commonly used pharmacological glucose-lowering treatment regimens, in everyday clinical practice. Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, information was linked from the Swedish National Diabetes Register, Prescribed Drug Register and Patient Register. T2DM patients with non-pharmacological treatment and T2DM patients continuously using the 12 most common pharmacological treatment regimens were included in the study (n = 163121). Results: There were statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups. Patients with insulin-based treatment regimens had the longest duration of diabetes and more cardiovascular risk factors than the T2DM-population in general. The proportion of patients reaching HbA1c =7% varied between 70.1% (metformin) and 25.0% [premixed insulin (PMI) + SU) in patients with pharmacological treatment. 84.8% of the patients with non-pharmacological treatment reached target. Compared to patients on metformin, patients on other pharmacological treatments had a lower likelihood, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.540.63 to 0.97;0.940.99, of having HbA1c =7% (adjusted for covariates). Patients on insulin-based treatments had the lowest likelihood, while non-pharmacological treatment was associated with an increased likelihood of having HbA1c =7%. Conclusion: This nation-wide study shows insufficiently reached treatment goals for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in all treatment groups. Patients on insulin-based treatment regimens had the longest duration of diabetes, more cardiovascular risk factors and the highest proportions of patients not reaching HbA1c target.
  • Ekström, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Aspirin treatment and risk of first incident cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes : an observational study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 3:4, s. e002688-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To investigate the benefits and risks associated with aspirin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) in clinical practice. Design Population-based cohort study between 2005 and 2009, mean follow-up 3.9years. Setting Hospital outpatient clinics and primary care in Sweden. Participants Men and women with type 2 diabetes, free from CVD, including atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, at baseline, registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register, with continuous low-dose aspirin treatment (n=4608) or no aspirin treatment (n=14038). Main outcome measures Risks of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, mortality and bleedings, associated with aspirin compared with no aspirin, were analysed in all patients and in subgroups by gender and estimated cardiovascular risk. Propensity scores were used to adjust for several baseline risk factors and characteristics at Cox regression, and the effect of unknown covariates was evaluated in a sensitivity analysis. Results There was no association between aspirin use and beneficial effects on risks of CVD or death. Rather, there was an increased risk of non-fatal/fatal CHD associated with aspirin; HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.41), p=0.04. The increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes associated with aspirin was seen when analysing women separately; HR 1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.87), p=0.02, and HR 1.28 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.61), p=0.04, for CHD and CVD, respectively, but not for men separately. There was a trend towards increased risk of a composite of bleedings associated with aspirin, n=157; HR 1.41 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.99). Conclusions The results support the trend towards more restrictive use of aspirin in patients with type 2 diabetes and no previous CVD. More research is needed to explore the differences in aspirin's effects in women and men.
  • Ekström, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular safety of glucose-lowering agents as add-on medication to metformin treatment in type 2 diabetes: report from the Swedish National Diabetes Register
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 18:10, s. 990-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate the relative safety of various glucose-lowering agents as add-on medication to metformin in type 2 diabetes in an observational study linking five national health registers. Research design and methods: Patients with type 2 diabetes who had been on metformin monotherapy and started another agent in addition to metformin were eligible for inclusion. The study period was 2005-2012. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and congestive heart failure (CHF) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, weighted for a propensity score. Results: Of the 20 422 patients included in the study, 43% started on second-line treatment with sulphonylurea (SU), 21% basal insulin, 12% thiazolidinedione (TZD), 11% meglitinide, 10% dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, 1% glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist and 1% acarbose. At the index date, the mean patient age was similar to 60 years for all groups except the GLP-1 receptor agonist (56.0 years) and SU (62.9 years) groups. Diabetes duration and glycated haemoglobin levels were similar in all groups. When compared with SU, basal insulin was associated with an 18% higher risk and TZD with a 24% lower risk of mortality [HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03-1.36) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.62-0.94)], respectively. DPP-4 inhibitor treatment was associated with significantly lower risks of CVD, fatal CVD, CHD, fatal CHD and CHF. Conclusions: This nationwide observational study showed that second-line treatment with TZD and DPP-4 inhibitor as add-on medication to metformin were associated with significantly lower risks of mortality and cardiovascular events compared with SU, whereas basal insulin was associated with a higher risk of mortality.
  • McGinn, Steven, et al. (författare)
  • New technologies for DNA analysis - a review of the READNA Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: New Biotechnology. - : Elsevier. - 1871-6784 .- 1876-4347. ; 33:3, s. 311-330
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The REvolutionary Approaches and Devices for Nucleic Acid analysis (READNA) project received funding from the European Commission for 4 1/2 years. The objectives of the project revolved around technological developments in nucleic acid analysis. The project partners have discovered, created and developed a huge body of insights into nucleic acid analysis, ranging from improvements and implementation of current technologies to the most promising sequencing technologies that constitute a 3rd and 4th generation of sequencing methods with nanopores and in situ sequencing, respectively.
  • Arnshav, Mirja, 1977- (författare)
  • De små båtarna och den stora flykten : Arkeologi i spåren av andra världskrigets baltiska flyktbåtar
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, were occupied no less than three times during the Second World War. Faced with a reign of terror, the threat of deportation, and compulsory conscription, over 30,000 people fled over the Baltic Sea to Sweden. On their arrival in Sweden, most escape boats were confiscated by the authorities and in 1945 were returned to the Soviet Union.This study, which began as an attempt to find out about the Baltic escape boats that ended up in Sweden, is inspired by a foreign boat in a small fishing harbour on the island of Gotland. My curiosity was piqued when I caught sight of the boat and heard that it had probably been an escape boat.The purpose of this thesis is to establish which, if any, Baltic escape boats survive in Sweden, in which contexts they remain, and to review their state of preservation, as well as to answer the question of their significance for the memory of the escape. It is an archaeology of the escape and its aftermath, based on the surviving escape boats – what the boats say about the escape, what happened to them afterwards, and how people relate to them and their historical legacy today.The study looks at 35 boats that have been described as Baltic escape boats in various contexts. It shows that they are found in a multitude of environments and in a range of different states of preservation. The boats illustrate experiences that few other source materials can convey, in a manner pertinent to the archaeological understanding of flight. In addition, the boats are rare traces of an earlier Estonian coastal culture eradicated by the second Soviet occupation.One of the most important outcomes of the study is the documentation from the survey and examinations carried out. Few of the boats were known outside their local context. A national compilation has been lacking, which has impeded research and ultimately our understanding of the breadth and complexity of the Swedish historical landscape when it comes to ship remains.
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