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Sökning: WFRF:(Ellis Kathryn A)

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  • Hollestelle, Antoinette, et al. (författare)
  • No clinical utility of KRAS variant rs61764370 for ovarian or breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - : Academic Press. - 0090-8258 .- 1095-6859. ; 141:2, s. 386-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3′ UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. Methods Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Results We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p = 0.74) or breast cancer (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p = 0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p = 0.14, breast cancer HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p = 0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p = 0.34, breast cancer HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p = 0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p = 0.38), breast cancer (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p = 0.38), and all other previously-reported associations. Conclusions rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers.
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  • Lawrenson, Kate, et al. (författare)
  • Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10-20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10-13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10-16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10-5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10-3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10-3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • A plasma protein classifier for predicting amyloid burden for preclinical Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science advances. - 2375-2548. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A blood-based assessment of preclinical disease would have huge potential in the enrichment of participants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials. In this study, cognitively unimpaired individuals from the AIBL and KARVIAH cohorts were defined as Aβ negative or Aβ positive by positron emission tomography. Nontargeted proteomic analysis that incorporated peptide fractionation and high-resolution mass spectrometry quantified relative protein abundances in plasma samples from all participants. A protein classifier model was trained to predict Aβ-positive participants using feature selection and machine learning in AIBL and independently assessed in KARVIAH. A 12-feature model for predicting Aβ-positive participants was established and demonstrated high accuracy (testing area under the receiver operator characteristic curve = 0.891, sensitivity = 0.78, and specificity = 0.77). This extensive plasma proteomic study has unbiasedly highlighted putative and novel candidates for AD pathology that should be further validated with automated methodologies.
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  • Wheeler, Michael J, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of continuous exercise and intermittent active interruptions to prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglycerides in adults with obesity : a randomized crossover trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. - London : BioMed Central. - 1479-5868 .- 1479-5868. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride metabolism is impaired by prolonged sitting, but enhanced by exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a continuous exercise bout with and without intermittent active interruptions to prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.METHODS: Sedentary adults who were overweight to obese (n = 67; mean age 67 yr SD ± 7; BMI 31.2 kg∙m- 2 SD ± 4.1), completed three conditions: SIT: uninterrupted sitting (8-h, control); EX+SIT: sitting (1-h), moderate-intensity walking (30-min), uninterrupted sitting (6.5-h); EX+BR: sitting (1-h), moderate-intensity walking (30- min), sitting interrupted every 30-min with 3-min of light-intensity walking (6.5 h). Participants consumed standardized breakfast and lunch meals and blood was sampled at 13 time-points.RESULTS: When compared to SIT, EX+SIT increased total area under the curve (tAUC) for glucose by 2% [0.1-4.1%] and EX+BR by 3% [0.6-4.7%] (all p < 0.05). Compared to SIT, EX+SIT reduced insulin and insulin:glucose ratio tAUC by 18% [11-22%] and 21% [8-33%], respectively; and EX+BR reduced values by 25% [19-31%] and 28% [15-38%], respectively (all p < 0.001 vs SIT, all p < 0.05 EX+SIT-vs-EX+BR). Compared to SIT, EX+BR reduced triglyceride tAUC by 6% [1-10%] (p = 0.01 vs SIT), and compared to EX+SIT, EX+BR reduced this value by 5% [0.1-8.8%] (p = 0.047 vs EX+SIT). The magnitude of reduction in insulin tAUC from SIT-to-EX+BR was greater in those with increased basal insulin resistance. No reduction in triglyceride tAUC from SIT-to-EX+BR was apparent in those with high fasting triglycerides.CONCLUSIONS: Additional reductions in postprandial insulin-glucose dynamics and triglycerides may be achieved by combining exercise with breaks in sitting. Relative to uninterrupted sitting, this strategy may reduce postprandial insulin more in those with high basal insulin resistance, but those with high fasting triglycerides may be resistant to such intervention-induced reductions in triglycerides.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000737639 ).
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  • Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Combined physical and cognitive training for older adults with and without cognitive impairment : A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ageing Research Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 1568-1637 .- 1872-9649. ; 66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combining physical exercise with cognitive training is a popular intervention in dementia prevention trials and guidelines. However, it remains unclear what combination strategies are most beneficial for cognitive and physical outcomes. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the three main types of combination strategies (simultaneous, sequential or exergaming) to either intervention alone or control in older adults. Randomized controlled trials of combined cognitive and physical training were included in multivariate and network meta-analyses. In cognitively healthy older adults and mild cognitive impairment, the effect of any combined intervention relative to control was small and statistically significant for overall cognitive (k = 41, Hedges' g = 0.22, 95 % CI 0.14 to 0.30) and physical function (k = 32, g = 0.25, 95 % CI 0.13 to 0.37). Simultaneous training was the most efficacious approach for cognition, followed by sequential combinations and cognitive training alone, and significantly better than physical exercise. For physical outcomes, simultaneous and sequential training showed comparable efficacy as exercise alone and significantly exceeded all other control conditions. Exergaming ranked low for both outcomes. Our findings suggest that simultaneously and sequentially combined interventions are efficacious for promoting cognitive alongside physical health in older adults, and therefore should be preferred over implementation of single-domain training.
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  • Wennberg, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting on fatigue and cognition : a pilot study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 6:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To compare the acute effects of uninterrupted sitting with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light-intensity walking on self-reported fatigue, cognition, neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight/obese adults.Design: Randomised two-condition crossover trial.Setting: Laboratory study conducted in Melbourne, Australia.Participants: 19 overweight/obese adults (45–75 years).Interventions: After an initial 2 h period seated, participants consumed a meal-replacement beverage and completed (on 2 days separated by a 6-day washout period) each condition over the next 5 h: uninterrupted sitting (sedentary condition) or sitting with 3 min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 min (active condition).Primary outcome measures: Self-reported fatigue, executive function and episodic memory at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h.Secondary outcome measures: Neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers (blood collections at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h, blood pressure and heart rate measured hourly and interstitial glucose measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system).Results: During the active condition, fatigue levels were lower at 4 h (−13.32 (95% CI −23.48 to −3.16)) and at 7 h (−10.73 (95% CI −20.89 to −0.58)) compared to the sedentary condition. Heart rate was higher at 4 h (4.47 (95% CI 8.37 to 0.58)) and at 7 h (4.32 (95% CI 8.21 to 0.42)) during the active condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no significant differences between conditions by time for other variables. In the sedentary condition, changes in fatigue scores over time correlated with a decrease in heart rate and plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and an increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG).Conclusions: Interrupting prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking breaks may be an effective fatigue countermeasure acutely. Fatigue levels corresponded with the heart rate and neuroendocrine biomarker changes in uninterrupted sitting in this pilot study. Further research is needed to identify potential implications, particularly for the occupational health context.
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