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1.
  • Bejerot, S., et al. (författare)
  • The extreme male brain revisited: gender coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - London, United Kingdom : Royal College of Psychiatrists. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 201:2, s. 116-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The 'extreme male brain' theory suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extreme variant of male intelligence. However, somewhat paradoxically, many individuals with ASD display androgynous physical features regardless of gender. Aims To assess physical measures, supposedly related to androgen influence, in adults with and without ASD. Method Serum hormone levels, anthropometry, the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) and psychiatric symptomatology were measured in 50 adults with high-functioning ASD and age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls. Photographs of face and body, as well as voice recordings, were obtained and assessed with respect to gender coherence, blindly and independently, by eight assessors. Results Women with ASD had higher total and bioactive testosterone levels, less feminine facial features and a larger head circumference than female controls. Men in the ASD group were assessed as having less masculine body characteristics and voice quality, and displayed higher (i.e. less masculine) 2D:4D ratios, but similar testosterone levels to controls. Androgynous facial features correlated strongly and positively with autistic traits measured with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in the total sample. In males and females with ASD dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not decrease with age, in contrast to the control group. Conclusions Women with ASD had elevated testosterone levels and several masculinised characteristics compared with controls, whereas men with ASD displayed several feminised characteristics. Our findings suggest that ASD, rather than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may constitute a gender defiant disorder.
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2.
  • Damberg, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of transcription factor AP-2 beta genotype in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience letters. - 0304-3940. ; 377:1, s. 49-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has repeatedly been shown that the serotonergic system is involved in the symptomatology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD are reported to differ from symptom-free controls with regard to serotonin-related biological markers. Evidence from family and twin studies suggests a genetic contribution to the aetiology of PMDD. The expression of human transcription factor AP-2beta in neural crest cell lineages and neuroectodermal cells suggests that this protein may be of importance for functional characteristics of neurons by regulating the expression of target genes. Within the monoaminergic systems, several genes have binding sites for AP-2beta in regulatory regions, suggesting an involvement of AP-2beta in these systems. The gene encoding AP-2beta is located on chromosome 6p12-p21.1 and includes a polymorphic region consisting of a variable number of [CAAA] repeats located in the second intron. We have earlier shown that AP-2beta genotype is associated with serotonergic phenotypes and that brainstem levels of AP-2beta correlate positively to serotonin metabolism in rat frontal cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PMDD and transcription factor AP-2beta genotype. The participants included 176 women with PMDD and 91 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reactions. We did not observe any differences in AP-2beta genotype frequencies between PMDD subjects and controls. Our results suggest that AP-2beta genotype is not a risk factor for PMDD. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating transcription factor AP-2beta genotype in women with PMDD. Hence, these results should be considered preliminary until replicated.
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3.
  • Ekman, Agneta, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Low density and high affinity of platelet [3H]paroxetine binding in women with bulimia nervosa.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 0165-1781. ; 142:2-3, s. 219-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired serotonin transmission has been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa. As an indirect measure of brain serotonergic activity, the binding of tritiated ligands to platelet serotonin transporters has been studied in bulimia nervosa as well as in other putatively serotonin-related psychiatric disorders. In this study, the density and affinity of platelet serotonin transporters were assessed in 20 women meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa and in 14 controls without previous or ongoing eating disorder using [(3)H]paroxetine as a ligand. In comparison to controls, women with bulimia nervosa had a significantly reduced number of platelet binding sites (B(max) = 721 +/- 313 vs. 1145 +/- 293 fmol/mg protein) and an increase in the affinity for the ligand demonstrated by a lower dissociaton constant (K(d) = 33 +/- 10 vs. 44 +/- 10 pM). A significant correlation between B(max) and K(d) values was found in patients but not in controls. Our results support the notion that bulimia nervosa is associated with a reduction in platelet serotonin transporter density. In addition, our study is the first to report that this reduced transporter density in women with bulimia nervosa is accompanied by an increase in the affinity of the transporter for the ligand.
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4.
  • Ljung, Thomas, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of abdominally obese men with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a pilot study.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 250:3, s. 219-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system perturbations found in abdominal obesity. DESIGN: Treatment for 6 months with citalopram and for 6 months with placebo using a double-blind, cross-over design, with a 2-month wash-out period between treatment periods. SUBJECTS: Sixteen healthy men, 45-60 years, moderately obese and with an abdominal fat distribution. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry, three different depression rating scales, serum lipids, testosterone, IGF-I, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pituitary stimulation with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), arithmetic stress test, and excretion of cortisol and metoxycatecholamines in urine, collected during 24 h. RESULTS: Cortisol concentrations in the morning were low before treatment, indicating a perturbed function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. After treatment with citalopram morning cortisol concentrations rose to normal. Cortisol concentrations after stimulation with CRH or stress were elevated by citalopram treatment, but urinary cortisol excretion was unchanged. The glucose concentrations after OGTT (120 min) tended to be reduced, with unchanged insulin concentrations, whilst other metabolic values did not change during treatment. Heart rate after administration of CRH, and during laboratory stress test, decreased by treatment with citalopram. Diurnal urinary excretion of metoxycatecholamines tended to decrease. Neither body mass index nor waist/hip circumference ratio decreased. Depression scores were within normal limits before treatment and did not change. CONCLUSION: The results of this pilot study indicate improvements in the regulation of neuroendocrine-autonomic systems as well as metabolism in abdominal obesity during treatment with an SSRI.
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5.
  • Bergman, Olle, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Association between amygdala reactivity and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2158-3188. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Essential for detection of relevant external stimuli and for fear processing, the amygdala is under modulatory influence of dopamine (DA). The DA transporter (DAT) is of fundamental importance for the regulation of DA transmission by mediating reuptake inactivation of extracellular DA. This study examined if a common functional variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the DAT gene (SLC6A3) influences amygdala function during the processing of aversive emotional stimuli. Amygdala reactivity was examined by comparing regional cerebral blood flow, measured with positron emission tomography and [(15)O]water, during exposure to angry and neutral faces, respectively, in a Swedish sample comprising 32 patients with social anxiety disorder and 17 healthy volunteers. In a separate US sample, comprising 85 healthy volunteers studied with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, amygdala reactivity was assessed by comparing the activity during exposure to threatening faces and neutral geometric shapes, respectively. In both the Swedish and the US sample, 9-repeat carriers displayed higher amygdala reactivity than 10-repeat homozygotes. The results suggest that this polymorphism contributes to individual variability in amygdala reactivity.
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8.
  • Hieronymus, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • The alleged ineffectiveness of SSRIs in depression is an artefact caused by the use of an inappropriate measure of efficacy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology vol. 17 Supplement 1. 29th CINP World Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vancouver, Canada, 22–26 June 2014. - New York : Cambridge University Press. - 1461-1457 .- 1469-5111.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: Many studies have questioned if summation of the scores of the 17 disparate items constituting the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) is a reliable index of severity in depression; yet the cur- rent questioning of the ef fi cacy of antidepressant drugs is to a large extent based on the assumption that response to treatment is reliably re fl ected by this instrument. We aimed to investigate the possibility that the shortcom- ings of the HDRS may contribute to the failure of antidepressants to out- perform placebo in many trials. Methods: We analyzed thirteen industry-sponsored trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) comprising twenty-four drug- placebo comparisons and including patient-level data from 5381 subjects (administered paroxetine, citalopram, fl uoxetine, or placebo), the aim being to assess what the outcome would have been if the single item de- pressed mood (rated 0 – 4) had been used as measure of ef fi cacy. Results: While 12 out of 24 comparisons (50%) revealed a signi fi cant difference between active drug and placebo at week 6 with respect to re- duction in HDRS-17-sum, 23 out of 24 comparisons (96%) showed the ac- tive drug to be superior to placebo in reducing depressed mood. Correspondingly, a pooled analysis of all cases showed the effect size when assessed using the HDRS-17-sum to be 0.30, whereas it, when mea- sured using the depressed mood item alone, was 0.42. Conclusion: While not claiming that measuring one item only is the most appropriate way of recording symptom severity in depression, we do suggest that the inclusion of a number of varying symptoms in the as- sessment, some of which may be side-effects of treatment and/or are unre- lated to the disorder, reduces the sensitivity to detect a difference between active drug and placebo. This lack of sensitivity of HDRS-17 might partly explain why a high fraction of antidepressant trials fail to reveal a signi fi - cant difference between treatment groups
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9.
  • Ho, Hoi-Por, 1962, et al. (författare)
  • Association between a functional polymorphism in the progesterone receptor gene and panic disorder in women.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 29:9, s. 1138-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although genetic factors are known to be important risk factors for panic disorder there is as yet no conclusive data regarding specific gene variants. Prompted by evidence supporting progesterone to influence the pathophysiology of panic disorder, polymorphisms in the progesterone receptor gene, a single nucleotide polymorphism (G331A) and an insertion/deletion polymorphism (PROGINS) were investigated in 72 patients with panic disorder and 452 controls. The frequency of the A-allele of the G331A polymorphism was higher in panic disorder patients than in controls (p = 0.01). When male and female patients were analyzed separately, the association was observed in female patients only (p = 0.0009), with an odds ratio of 3.5. No differences between groups were observed for the PROGINS polymorphism. In conclusion, these data suggest that the G331A polymorphism in the progesterone receptor gene may influence the risk for panic disorder in women.
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10.
  • Håkansson, Anna, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction of polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin-6 and estrogen receptor beta on the susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841 .- 1552-485X. ; 133:1, s. 88-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The multifunctional cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in inflammatory processes in the central nervous system and increased levels of IL-6 have been found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). It is known that estrogen inhibits the production of IL-6, via action on estrogen receptors, thereby pointing to an important influence of estrogen on IL-6. In a previous study, we reported an association between a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 1730 in the gene coding for estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and age of onset of PD. To investigate the influence of a G/C SNP at position 174 in the promoter of the IL-6 gene, and the possible interaction of this SNP and the ERbeta G-1730A SNP on the risk for PD, the G-174C SNP was genotyped, by pyrosequencing, in 258 patients with PD and 308 controls. A significantly elevated frequency of the GG genotype of the IL-6 SNP was found in the patient group and this was most obvious among patients with an early age of onset (
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