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Sökning: WFRF:(FEUNTEUN J)

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2.
  • Brodkorb, A., et al. (författare)
  • INFOGEST static in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal food digestion
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Protocols. - 1754-2189. ; 14:4, s. 991-1014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Developing a mechanistic understanding of the impact of food structure and composition on human health has increasingly involved simulating digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These simulations have used a wide range of different conditions that often have very little physiological relevance, and this impedes the meaningful comparison of results. The standardized protocol presented here is based on an international consensus developed by the COST INFOGEST network. The method is designed to be used with standard laboratory equipment and requires limited experience to encourage a wide range of researchers to adopt it. It is a static digestion method that uses constant ratios of meal to digestive fluids and a constant pH for each step of digestion. This makes the method simple to use but not suitable for simulating digestion kinetics. Using this method, food samples are subjected to sequential oral, gastric and intestinal digestion while parameters such as electrolytes, enzymes, bile, dilution, pH and time of digestion are based on available physiological data. This amended and improved digestion method (INFOGEST 2.0) avoids challenges associated with the original method, such as the inclusion of the oral phase and the use of gastric lipase. The method can be used to assess the endpoints resulting from digestion of foods by analyzing the digestion products (e.g., peptides/amino acids, fatty acids, simple sugars) and evaluating the release of micronutrients from the food matrix. The whole protocol can be completed in ~7 d, including ~5 d required for the determination of enzyme activities.
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3.
  • Minekus, M., et al. (författare)
  • A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food - an international consensus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Food and Function. - 2042-6496 .- 2042-650X. ; 5:6, s. 1113-1124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of nutrients and non-nutrients or the digestibility of macronutrients (e. g. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) are used for screening and building new hypotheses. Various digestion models have been proposed, often impeding the possibility to compare results across research teams. For example, a large variety of enzymes from different sources such as of porcine, rabbit or human origin have been used, differing in their activity and characterization. Differences in pH, mineral type, ionic strength and digestion time, which alter enzyme activity and other phenomena, may also considerably alter results. Other parameters such as the presence of phospholipids, individual enzymes such as gastric lipase and digestive emulsifiers vs. their mixtures (e. g. pancreatin and bile salts), and the ratio of food bolus to digestive fluids, have also been discussed at length. In the present consensus paper, within the COST Infogest network, we propose a general standardised and practical static digestion method based on physiologically relevant conditions that can be applied for various endpoints, which may be amended to accommodate further specific requirements. A frameset of parameters including the oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion are outlined and their relevance discussed in relation to available in vivo data and enzymes. This consensus paper will give a detailed protocol and a line-by-line, guidance, recommendations and justifications but also limitation of the proposed model. This harmonised static, in vitro digestion method for food should aid the production of more comparable data in the future.
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4.
  • Ghinter, Leopold, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial functional structure and stable isotopic variation of leptocephali across three current zones in the western South Pacific
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Progress in Oceanography. - 0079-6611 .- 1873-4472. ; 182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ecology of leptocephali remains poorly known but they appear to feed on marine snow that can vary spatially and temporally according to the food web dynamics. This study provided new information about the position of leptocephali within the functional structure of microbial plankton and other food web components of the western South Pacific (WSP) region at a large geographic scale including the New Caledonia, Fiji, and Samoa islands. The hydrographic structure varied with latitude, and nutrient levels were generally low but somewhat variable. Stable isotopic signatures were examined in relation to the 3 current zones of the eastward flowing South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC; north), the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC; mid-latitudes), and the eastward South Tropical Countercurrent (STCC; south), and all zones were found to be primarily based on a heterotrophic planktonic functioning that were co-limited by inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, with biomasses of planktonic groups varying with depth. Isotopic signatures of leptocephali were compared to the signatures of other mesozoplankton, micronekton, and Trichodesmium components of the food web, and in relation to the signatures of particulate organic matter (POM) that varied among the 3 collection depths. The isotopic signatures of six taxa of leptocephali, other taxonomic groups and POM showed interesting variability according to latitude and among some stations. The presence of Trichodesmium at the surface in the STCC zone influenced the isotopic signatures of POM and thus the signatures of leptocephali. The signatures of leptocephali were therefore linked with the overall food web and were consistent with the larvae feeding on marine snow components of POM. The two apparent groups of leptocephali with different isotopic signatures that have also been observed in other oceanic areas may be explained by feeding behavior at different depths or on different types of marine snow.
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