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Sökning: WFRF:(Fadista Joao)

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  • Abels, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:9, s. 1928-1937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart−/− mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. Methods: CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes. Insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in isolated islets and in vivo in mice. Ca2+ oscillation patterns and exocytosis were studied in mouse islets. Results: We report an important role of CART in human islet function and glucose homeostasis in mice. CART was found to be expressed in human alpha and beta cells and in a subpopulation of mouse beta cells. Notably, CART expression was several fold higher in islets of type 2 diabetic humans and rodents. CART increased insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in human and mouse islets. Furthermore, CART increased beta cell exocytosis, altered the glucose-induced Ca2+ signalling pattern in mouse islets from fast to slow oscillations and improved synchronisation of the oscillations between different islet regions. Finally, CART reduced glucagon secretion in human and mouse islets, as well as in vivo in mice via diminished alpha cell exocytosis. Conclusions/interpretation: We conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
  • Bennet, Hedvig, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 2b activation augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human and mouse islets of Langerhans.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 744-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Gq-coupled 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B (5-HT2B) receptor is known to regulate the proliferation of islet beta cells during pregnancy. However, the role of serotonin in the control of insulin release is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of the 5-HT2B receptor in the regulation of insulin secretion in mouse and human islets, as well as in clonal INS-1(832/13) cells.
  • Cigliola, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • A Variant of GJD2, Encoding for Connexin 36, Alters the Function of Insulin Producing β-Cells.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Signalling through gap junctions contributes to control insulin secretion and, thus, blood glucose levels. Gap junctions of the insulin-producing β-cells are made of connexin 36 (Cx36), which is encoded by the GJD2 gene. Cx36-null mice feature alterations mimicking those observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). GJD2 is also expressed in neurons, which share a number of common features with pancreatic β-cells. Given that a synonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphism of human Cx36 (SNP rs3743123) associates with altered function of central neurons in a subset of epileptic patients, we investigated whether this SNP also caused alterations of β-cell function. Transfection of rs3743123 cDNA in connexin-lacking HeLa cells resulted in altered formation of gap junction plaques and cell coupling, as compared to those induced by wild type (WT) GJD2 cDNA. Transgenic mice expressing the very same cDNAs under an insulin promoter revealed that SNP rs3743123 expression consistently lead to a post-natal reduction of islet Cx36 levels and β-cell survival, resulting in hyperglycemia in selected lines. These changes were not observed in sex- and age-matched controls expressing WT hCx36. The variant GJD2 only marginally associated to heterogeneous populations of diabetic patients. The data document that a silent polymorphism of GJD2 is associated with altered β-cell function, presumably contributing to T2D pathogenesis.
  • Claussnitzer, Melina, et al. (författare)
  • Leveraging cross-species transcription factor binding site patterns: from diabetes risk Loci to disease mechanisms.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : Cell Press. - 1097-4172. ; 156:1-2, s. 343-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous risk loci associated with diverse diseases. However, identification of disease-causing variants within association loci remains a major challenge. Divergence in gene expression due to cis-regulatory variants in noncoding regions is central to disease susceptibility. We show that integrative computational analysis of phylogenetic conservation with a complexity assessment of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) can identify cis-regulatory variants and elucidate their mechanistic role in disease. Analysis of established type 2 diabetes risk loci revealed a striking clustering of distinct homeobox TFBS. We identified the PRRX1 homeobox factor as a repressor of PPARG2 expression in adipose cells and demonstrate its adverse effect on lipid metabolism and systemic insulin sensitivity, dependent on the rs4684847 risk allele that triggers PRRX1 binding. Thus, cross-species conservation analysis at the level of co-occurring TFBS provides a valuable contribution to the translation of genetic association signals to disease-related molecular mechanisms.
  • Esguerra, Jonathan L.S., et al. (författare)
  • Glucocorticoid induces human beta cell dysfunction by involving riborepressor GAS5 LincRNA
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Metabolism. - : Elsevier. - 2212-8778. ; 32, s. 160-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A widely recognized metabolic side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). However, studies on the molecular basis of GC-induced pancreatic beta cell dysfunction in human beta cells are lacking. The significance of non-coding RNAs in various cellular processes is emerging. In this study, we aimed to show the direct negative impact of GC on beta cell function and elucidate the role of riborepressor GAS5 lincRNA in the GC signaling pathway in human pancreatic beta cells. Methods: Patients undergoing two weeks of high-dose prednisolone therapy were monitored for C-peptide levels. Human pancreatic islets and the human beta cell line EndoC-βH1 were incubated in pharmacological concentrations of dexamethasone. The GAS5 level was modulated using anti-sense LNA gapmeR or short oligonucleotides with GAS5 HREM (hormone response element motif). Immunoblotting and/or real-time PCR were used to assess changes in protein and RNA expression, respectively. Functional characterization included glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and apoptosis assays. Correlation analysis was performed on RNAseq data of human pancreatic islets. Results: We found reduced C-peptide levels in patients undergoing high-dose GC therapy. Human islets and the human beta cell line EndoC-βH1 exposed to GC exhibited reduced insulin secretion and increased apoptosis. Concomitantly, reduced expression of important beta cell transcription factors, PDX1 and NKX6-1, as well as exocytotic protein SYT13 were observed. The expression of the glucocorticoid receptor was decreased, while that of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) was elevated. The expression of these genes was found to significantly correlate with GAS5 in human islet transcriptomics data. Increasing GAS5 levels using GAS5 HREM alleviated the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on insulin secretion. Conclusions: The direct adverse effect of glucocorticoid in human beta cell function is mediated via important beta cell proteins and components of the GC signaling pathway in an intricate interplay with GAS5 lincRNA, a potentially novel therapeutic target to counter GC-mediated beta cell dysfunction.
  • Fadista, João, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic regulation of spermine oxidase activity and cancer risk : a Mendelian randomization study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spermine oxidase (SMOX) catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Observational studies have reported SMOX as a source of reactive oxygen species associated with cancer, implying that inhibition of SMOX could be a target for chemoprevention. Here we test causality of SMOX levels with cancer risk using a Mendelian randomization analysis. We performed a GWAS of spermidine/spermine ratio to identify genetic variants associated with regulation of SMOX activity. Replication analysis was performed in two datasets of SMOX gene expression. We then did a Mendelian randomization analysis by testing the association between the SMOX genetic instrument and neuroblastoma, gastric, lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers using GWAS summary statistics. GWAS of spermidine/spermine ratio identified SMOX locus (P = 1.34 × 10–49) explaining 32% of the variance. The lead SNP rs1741315 was also associated with SMOX gene expression in newborns (P = 8.48 × 10–28) and adults (P = 2.748 × 10–8) explaining 37% and 6% of the variance, respectively. Genetically determined SMOX activity was not associated with neuroblastoma, gastric, lung, breast, prostate nor colorectal cancer (P > 0.05). A PheWAS of rs1741315 did not reveal any relevant associations. Common genetic variation in the SMOX gene was strongly associated with SMOX activity in newborns, and less strongly in adults. Genetic down-regulation of SMOX was not significantly associated with lower odds of neuroblastoma, gastric, lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. These results may inform studies of SMOX inhibition as a target for chemoprevention.
  • Fadista, João, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of Hirschsprung disease detects a novel low-frequency variant at the RET locus.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 26:4, s. 561-569
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ; 322 cases and 4893 controls). The conditional signal was, however, not replicated in two HSCR cohorts from USA and Finland, leading to the hypothesis that rs144432435 tags a rare haplotype present in Denmark and Sweden. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis method, we estimated the SNP heritability of HSCR to be 88%, close to estimates based on classical family studies. Moreover, by using Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression we were able to construct a genetic HSCR predictor with a area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 76% in an independent validation set. In conclusion, we combined the largest collection of sporadic Hirschsprung cases to date (586 cases) to further elucidate HSCR's genetic architecture.
  • Fadista, João, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies BARX1 and EML4-MTA3 as new loci associated with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 28:2, s. 332-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a disorder of young infants with a population incidence of ∼2/1000 live births, caused by hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter smooth muscle. Reported genetic loci associated with IHPS explain only a minor proportion of IHPS risk. To identify new risk loci, we carried out a genome-wide meta-analysis on 1395 surgery-confirmed cases and 4438 controls, with replication in a set of 2427 cases and 2524 controls. We identified and replicated six independent genomic loci associated with IHPS risk at genome wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), including novel associations with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of these SNPs, rs6736913 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.32; P = 3.0 × 10-15], is a low frequency missense variant in EML4 at 2p21. The second SNP, rs1933683 (OR = 1.34; P = 3.1 × 10-9) is 1 kb downstream of BARX1 at 9q22.32, an essential gene for stomach formation in embryogenesis. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis method, we estimated the IHPS SNP heritability to be 30%, and using the linkage disequilibrium score regression method, we found support for a previously reported genetic correlation of IHPS with lipid metabolism. By combining the largest collection of IHPS cases to date (3822 cases), with results generalized across populations of different ancestry, we elucidate novel mechanistic avenues of IHPS disease architecture.
  • Fadista, Joao, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic position mapping discrepancies of commercial SNP chips.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 7:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The field of genetics has come to rely heavily on commercial genotyping arrays and accompanying annotations for insights into genotype-phenotype associations. However, in order to avoid errors and false leads, it is imperative that the annotation of SNP chromosomal positions is accurate and unambiguous. We report on genomic positional discrepancies of various SNP chips for human, cattle and mouse species, and discuss their causes and consequences.
  • Fadista, Joao, et al. (författare)
  • Global genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human pancreatic islets reveals novel genes influencing glucose metabolism.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 111:38, s. 13924-13929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic variation can modulate gene expression, and thereby phenotypic variation and susceptibility to complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we harnessed the potential of DNA and RNA sequencing in human pancreatic islets from 89 deceased donors to identify genes of potential importance in the pathogenesis of T2D. We present a catalog of genetic variants regulating gene expression (eQTL) and exon use (sQTL), including many long noncoding RNAs, which are enriched in known T2D-associated loci. Of 35 eQTL genes, whose expression differed between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic individuals, siRNA of tetraspanin 33 (TSPAN33), 5'-nucleotidase, ecto (NT5E), transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 6 (TMED6), and p21 protein activated kinase 7 (PAK7) in INS1 cells resulted in reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, we provide a genome-wide catalog of allelic expression imbalance, which is also enriched in known T2D-associated loci. Notably, allelic imbalance in paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) was associated with its promoter methylation and T2D status. Finally, RNA editing events were less common in islets than previously suggested in other tissues. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the complexity of gene regulation in human pancreatic islets and better understanding of how genetic variation can influence glucose metabolism.
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