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Sökning: WFRF:(Fani Melpomeni)

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  • Ambrosini, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus on molecular imaging and theranostics in neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier BV. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 146, s. 56-73
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays an increasingly important role in the management neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Somatostatin analogue (SSA)-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have been used in clinical trials and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Focus 3 performed a multidisciplinary Delphi process to deliver a balanced perspective on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). NETs form in cells that interact with the nervous system or in glands that produce hormones. These cells, called neuroendocrine cells, can be found throughout the body, but NETs are most often found in the abdomen, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumours may also be found in the lungs, pancreas and adrenal glands. In addition to being rare, NETs are also complex and may be difficult to diagnose. Most NETs are non-functioning; however, a minority present with symptoms related to hypersecretion of bioactive compounds. NETs often do not cause symptoms early in the disease process. When diagnosed, substantial number of patients are already found to have metastatic disease. Several societies' guidelines address Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) management; however, many issues are still debated, due to both the difficulty in acquiring strong clinical evidence in a rare and heterogeneous disease and the different availability of diagnostic and therapeutic options across countries. EANM Focus 3 reached consensus on employing 68gallium-labelled somatostatin analogue ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA)-based PET/CT with diagnostic CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unknown primary NET detection, metastatic NET, NET staging/restaging, suspected extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suspected paraganglioma. Consensus was reached on employing 18fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT in neuroendocrine carcinoma, G3 NET and in G1-2 NET with mismatched lesions (CT-positive/[68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA-negative). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) was recommended for second line treatment for gastrointestinal NET with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA uptake in all lesions, in G1/G2 NET at disease progression, and in a subset of G3 NET provided all lesions are positive at [18F]FDG and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA. PRRT rechallenge may be used for in patients with stable disease for at least 1 year after therapy completion. An international consensus is not only a prelude to a more standardised management across countries but also serves as a guide for the direction to follow when designing new research studies.
  • Fani, Melpomeni, et al. (författare)
  • Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 10:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics) of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors.
  • Rinne, Sara Sophie (författare)
  • Affibody-Based Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapy of HER3-Expressing Cancer
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The human epidermal growth factor receptor type 3 (HER3) is overexpressed in different types of cancer and is a known contributor to disease progression and resistance to cancer therapy. This thesis is based on five original articles, which aimed to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of affibody-based agents for management of HER3-expressing cancers. Papers I-III focused on the development and optimization of radiolabeled affibody molecules for radionuclide molecular imaging of HER3 expression. In particular, they investigated the influence of different radiometal/chelator complexes and hydrophilicity on the biodistribution and imaging properties of the HER3-targeting affibody molecule ZHER3. Paper IV compared the optimized ZHER3-based radiotracer with antibody and antibody-fragment based radiotracers for PET imaging of HER3 expression. In Paper V, a preclinical therapy study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of different monomeric and dimeric HER3-targeting affibody constructs for treatment of HER3-expressing cancer.It was shown that by optimizing the radiometal/chelator complex and incorporation of a hydrophilic (HE)3-tag the imaging properties of ZHER3-based radiotracers could be improved (Papers I-III). Generally, replacing a positively charged radiometal/chelator complex with a neutral or negatively charged complex improved the image contrast by reducing the normal organ uptake, especially in the liver. Further, it was demonstrated that the optimized affibody-based tracer [68Ga]Ga-(HE)3-ZHER3-NODAGA could provide higher contrast PET images of HER3 expression than the 89Zr-labeled antibody seribantumab and a seribantumab-derived F(ab’)2 fragment (Paper IV). The therapy study showed that the arrangement of the molecular building blocks affected the therapeutic efficacy of ZHER3-based affibody constructs. The monomeric and dimeric ABD-conjugated affibody constructs 3A and 3A3 showed the best therapeutic efficacy among the tested constructs and were able to delay tumor growth and prolong survival with the same efficacy as the therapeutic HER3-targeting antibody seribantumab (Paper V).In conclusion, the results described in this thesis show that HER3-targeting affibody-based agents could be well-suited for molecular imaging of HER3 expression and HER3-targeted therapy in cancer. Careful optimization of the molecular design could improve the imaging properties and therapeutic efficacy of HER3-targeting affibody molecules. Most importantly, it was demonstrated that HER3-targeting affibody molecules could provide superior diagnostic images and similar therapeutic effect than more traditional approaches for management of HER3-expressing cancer.
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