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4. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

XXI. The integrated SachsWolfe effect
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This paper presents a study of the integrated SachsWolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the largescale timeevolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is crosscorrelated with different largescale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint crosscorrelation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4 sigma where most of the signaltonoise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at approximate to 3 sigma (through the ISWlensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the crosscorrelation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the darkenergy parameters; in particular, we show that Omega(Lambda) is detected at more than 3 sigma. This crosscorrelation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMBLSS crosscorrelation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with Lambda CDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive crosscorrelation with these largescale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining the information encoded in all the previously mentioned LSS tracers. In particular, we construct a map of the ISW secondary anisotropies and the corresponding uncertainties map, obtained from simulations. We also explore the reconstruction of the ISW anisotropies caused by the largescale structure traced by the 2MASS Photometric Redshift Survey (2MPZ) by directly inverting the density field into the gravitational potential field.


5. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results I. Overview and the cosmological legacy of Planck
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, highresolution, allsky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857 GHz. This paper presents the cosmological legacy of Planck, which currently provides our strongest constraints on the parameters of the standard cosmological model and some of the tightest limits available on deviations from that model. The 6parameter Lambda CDM model continues to provide an excellent fit to the cosmic microwave background data at high and low redshift, describing the cosmological information in over a billion map pixels with just six parameters. With 18 peaks in the temperature and polarization angular power spectra constrained well, Planck measures five of the six parameters to better than 1% (simultaneously), with the bestdetermined parameter (theta (*)) now known to 0.03%. We describe the multicomponent sky as seen by Planck, the success of the Lambda CDM model, and the connection to lowerredshift probes of structure formation. We also give a comprehensive summary of the major changes introduced in this 2018 release. The Planck data, alone and in combination with other probes, provide stringent constraints on our models of the early Universe and the largescale structure within which all astrophysical objects form and evolve. We discuss some lessons learned from the Planck mission, and highlight areas ripe for further experimental advances.


6. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results VI. Cosmological parameters
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present cosmological parameter results from the final fullmission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of largescale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the smallscale polarization leads to more robust constraints on many parameters, with residual modelling uncertainties estimated to affect them only at the 0.5 sigma level. We find good consistency with the standard spatiallyflat 6parameter Lambda CDM cosmology having a powerlaw spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted base Lambda CDM in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Omega (c)h(2)=0.120 +/ 0.001, baryon density Omega (b)h(2)=0.0224 +/ 0.0001, scalar spectral index n(s)=0.965 +/ 0.004, and optical depth tau =0.054 +/ 0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100 theta (*)=1.0411 +/ 0.0003. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the baseLambda CDM cosmology, the inferred (modeldependent) lateUniverse parameters are: Hubble constant H0=(67.4 +/ 0.5) km s(1) Mpc(1); matter density parameter Omega (m)=0.315 +/ 0.007; and matter fluctuation amplitude sigma (8)=0.811 +/ 0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the baseLambda CDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and considering singleparameter extensions) we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be Neff=2.99 +/ 0.17, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction Neff=3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to Sigma m(nu)< 0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base CDM at over 2 sigma, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the Lambda CDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. The joint constraint with BAO measurements on spatial curvature is consistent with a flat universe, Omega (K)=0.001 +/ 0.002. Also combining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the darkenergy equation of state parameter is measured to be w(0)=1.03 +/ 0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely powerlaw primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensortoscalar ratio r(0.002)< 0.06. Standard bigbang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the baseCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck baseLambda CDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey's combinedprobe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6 sigma, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.


7. 
 Delabrouille, J., et al.
(författare)

Exploring cosmic origins with CORE : Survey requirements and mission design
 2018

Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.  : IOP Publishing.  14757516. ; :4

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Future observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarisation have the potential to answer some of the most fundamental questions of modern physics and cosmology, including: what physical process gave birth to the Universe we see today? What are the dark matter and dark energy that seem to constitute 95% of the energy density of the Universe? Do we need extensions to the standard model of particle physics and fundamental interactions? Is the ACDM cosmological scenario correct, or are we missing an essential piece of the puzzle? In this paper, we list the requirements for a future CMB polarisation survey addressing these scientific objectives, and discuss the design drivers of the CORE space mission proposed to ESA in answer to the M5 call for a mediumsized mission. The rationale and options, and the methodologies used to assess the mission's performance, are of interest to other future CMB mission design studies. CORE has 19 frequency channels, distributed over a broad frequency range, spanning the 60600 GHz interval, to control astrophysical foreground emission. The angular resolution ranges from 2' to 18', and the aggregate CMB sensitivity is about 2 mu K.arcmin. The observations are made with a single integrated focalplane instrument, consisting of an array of 2100 cryogenicallycooled, linearlypolarised detectors at the focus of a 1.2m aperture crossDragone telescope. The mission is designed to minimise all sources of systematic effects, which must be controlled so that no more than 10(4) of the intensity leaks into polarisation maps, and no more than about 1% of Etype polarisation leaks into Btype modes. CORE observes the sky from a large Lissajous orbit around the SunEarth L2 point on an orbit that offers stable observing conditions and avoids contamination from sidelobe pickup of stray radiation originating from the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The entire sky is observed repeatedly during four years of continuous scanning, with a combination of three rotations of the spacecraft over different timescales. With about 50% of the sky covered every few days, this scan strategy provides the mitigation of systematic effects and the internal redundancy that are needed to convincingly extract the primordial Bmode signal on large angular scales, and check with adequate sensitivity the consistency of the observations in several independent data subsets. CORE is designed as a nearultimate CMB polarisation mission which, for optimal complementarity with groundbased observations, will perform the observations that are known to be essential to CMB polarisation science and cannot be obtained by any other means than a dedicated space mission. It will provide wellcharacterised, highlyredundant multifrequency observations of polarisation at all the scales where foreground emission and cosmic variance dominate the final uncertainty for obtaining precision CMB science, as well as 2' angular resolution maps of highfrequency foreground emission in the 300600 GHz frequency range, essential for complementarity with future groundbased observations with large telescopes that can observe the CMB with the same beamsize.


8. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck fullsky maps. In this paper we make use of such fullsky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present fullsky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle psi, and dispersion function of polarization angles ?. The joint distribution (onepoint statistics) of p and NH confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing NH. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, (max) = 22.0(1.4)(+3.5) p max = 22 . 0  1.4 + 3.5 % at 353 GHz and 80 ' resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and ? found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the ?proportional to p(1) relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, psi, and ? for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map ?xp, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 34 between NH=10(20) cm(2) and NH=2x10(22) cm(2), out of the Galactic plane, this product ?xp only decreases by about 25%. Because ? is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with NH is determined mostly by the magneticfield structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of ?xp with the dust temperature Td, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion ? tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high ?. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emissiontoextinction ratios, RP/p and RS/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, p(V)/E(BV), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p approximate to 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.


9. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results V. CMB power spectra and likelihoods
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We describe the legacy Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihoods derived from the 2018 data release. The overall approach is similar in spirit to the one retained for the 2013 and 2015 data release, with a hybrid method using different approximations at low (l< 30) and high (l >= 30) multipoles, implementing several methodological and dataanalysis refinements compared to previous releases. With more realistic simulations, and better correction and modelling of systematic effects, we can now make full use of the CMB polarization observed in the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) channels. The lowmultipole EE crossspectra from the 100 GHz and 143 GHz data give a constraint on the Lambda CDM reionization opticaldepth parameter tau to better than 15% (in combination with the TT lowl data and the highl temperature and polarization data), tightening constraints on all parameters with posterior distributions correlated with tau. We also update the weaker constraint on tau from the joint TEB likelihood using the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) channels, which was used in 2015 as part of our baseline analysis. At higher multipoles, the CMB temperature spectrum and likelihood are very similar to previous releases. A better model of the temperaturetopolarization leakage and corrections for the effective calibrations of the polarization channels (i.e., the polarization efficiencies) allow us to make full use of polarization spectra, improving the Lambda CDM constraints on the parameters theta(MC), omega(c), omega(b), and H0 by more than 30%, and n(s) by more than 20% compared to TTonly constraints. Extensive tests on the robustness of the modelling of the polarization data demonstrate good consistency, with some residual modelling uncertainties. At high multipoles, we are now limited mainly by the accuracy of the polarization efficiency modelling. Using our various tests, simulations, and comparison between different highmultipole likelihood implementations, we estimate the consistency of the results to be better than the 0.5 sigma level on the Lambda CDM parameters, as well as classical singleparameter extensions for the joint likelihood (to be compared to the 0.3 sigma levels we achieved in 2015 for the temperature data alone on Lambda CDM only). Minor curiosities already present in the previous releases remain, such as the differences between the bestfit Lambda CDM parameters for the l< 800 and l> 800 ranges of the power spectrum, or the preference for more smoothing of the powerspectrum peaks than predicted in Lambda CDM fits. These are shown to be driven by the temperature power spectrum and are not significantly modified by the inclusion of the polarization data. Overall, the legacy Planck CMB likelihoods provide a robust tool for constraining the cosmological model and represent a reference for future CMB observations.


10. 
 Akrami, Y., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results IX. Constraints on primordial nonGaussianity
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We analyse the Planck fullmission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and Emode polarization maps to obtain constraints on primordial nonGaussianity (NG). We compare estimates obtained from separable templatefitting, binned, and optimal modal bispectrum estimators, finding consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes. Our combined temperature and polarization analysis produces the following final results: (local)(NL) = 0.9 +/ 5.1 f NL local =  0.9 +/ 5.1 ; f(NL)(equil) = 26 +/ 47 f NL equil =  26 +/ 47 ; and f(NL)(ortho) = 38 +/ 24 f NL ortho =  38 +/ 24 (68% CL, statistical). These results include lowmultipole (4 <= l< 40) polarization data that are not included in our previous analysis. The results also pass an extensive battery of tests (with additional tests regarding foreground residuals compared to 2015), and they are stable with respect to our 2015 measurements (with small fluctuations, at the level of a fraction of a standard deviation, which is consistent with changes in data processing). Polarizationonly bispectra display a significant improvement in robustness; they can now be used independently to set primordial NG constraints with a sensitivity comparable to WMAP temperaturebased results and they give excellent agreement. In addition to the analysis of the standard local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum shapes, we consider a large number of additional cases, such as scaledependent feature and resonance bispectra, isocurvature primordial NG, and paritybreaking models, where we also place tight constraints but do not detect any signal. The nonprimordial lensing bispectrum is, however, detected with an improved significance compared to 2015, excluding the null hypothesis at 3.5. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we also present modelindependent reconstructions and analyses of the Planck CMB bispectrum. Our final constraint on the local primordial trispectrum shape is g(NL)(local) = (5.8 +/ 6.5) x 10(4) g NL local = (  5.8 +/ 6.5 ) x 10 4 (68% CL, statistical), while constraints for other trispectrum shapes are also determined. Exploiting the tight limits on various bispectrum and trispectrum shapes, we constrain the parameter space of different earlyUniverse scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general singlefield models of inflation, multifield models (e.g. curvaton models), models of inflation with axion fields producing parityviolation bispectra in the tensor sector, and inflationary models involving vectorlike fields with directionallydependent bispectra. Our results provide a highprecision test for structureformation scenarios, showing complete agreement with the basic picture of the Lambda CDM cosmology regarding the statistics of the initial conditions, with cosmic structures arising from adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.

