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  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
  • Fredholm, BB, et al. (författare)
  • Consequences of eliminating adenosine A(1) receptors in mice
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Drug Development Research (Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides - Part 1). - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0272-4391 .- 1098-2299. ; 58:4, s. 350-353
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The second coding exon of the adenosine A, receptor gene was eliminated by homologous recombination. The phenotype of mice (mixed C57B6/129OlaHsd background) was studied, using siblings from matings of heterozygous mice. Among the offspring the ratio between+/+, +/-and -/-animals was 1:2:1. Over the first half-year-at least-growth and viability were the same in all genotypes. Binding of A(1) ligands was eliminated in-/-mice and halved in+/-mice. Blood pressure was increased in-/-mice and this was paralleled by an increase in plasma renin. Heart rate was unaffected, as was contractility. Furthermore, the response of the perfused heart to ischemia was similar in+/+and -/-hearts. However, remote preconditioning was eliminated in-/-mouse hearts. Tubuloglomerular feedback in the kidney was also lost in-/-mice. The analgesic response to a non-selective adenosing receptor agonist was lost in-/-mice, which also showed hyperalgesia in the tail-flick test. There was a slight hypoactivity in-/-mice, but responses to caffeine were essentially normal. The inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampus by adenosine was lost in-/-mice and reduced in+/-mice. Responses to ATP were affected similarly. Hypoxic depression of synaptic transmission was essentially eliminated in hippocampus and hypoxic decrease in spinal respiratory neuron firing was markedly reduced. These results show that adenosine A, receptors play a physiologically important role in the kidney, spinal cord, and hippocampus and that they are critically important in the adaptive responses to hypoxia. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Fuchsberger, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 536:7614, s. 41-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
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