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Sökning: WFRF:(Ferro José)

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  • Marchant, Rob, et al. (författare)
  • Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa : Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Earth-Science Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0012-8252 .- 1872-6828. ; 178, s. 322-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region. Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.
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  • Pantoni, Leonardo, et al. (författare)
  • Leukoaraiosis predicts hidden global functioning impairment in nondisabled older people: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) Study.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614. ; 54:7, s. 1095-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether leukoaraiosis severity is independently associated with differences in global functioning in nondisabled elderly patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis from an ongoing longitudinal multicenter and multinational study. SETTING: The Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, a collaboration aimed at assessing leukoaraiosis as an independent predictor of the transition to disability in older people. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred thirty-nine nondisabled subjects (288 men, 351 women, mean age+/-standard deviation 74.1+/-5.0) with magnetic resonance imaging-detected leukoaraiosis of different severity and presenting with one of the following: mild cognitive or motor disturbances, minor cerebrovascular events, or mood alterations or in whom leukoaraiosis was incidentally identified. MEASUREMENTS: Centralized assessment of leukoaraiosis severity according to the three severity degrees of the Fazekas scale; Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) Scale for measurement of global functioning. RESULTS: At baseline, 44% of participants had a mild, 31% a moderate, and 25% a severe degree of leukoaraiosis. A significant trend toward declining performance on the DAD Scale was apparent with increasing leukoaraiosis score severity (total score=98.8, 98.6, 97.5, respectively, in the three leukoaraiosis categories, analysis of variance P=.002). Similar trends were obtained for basic (P=.01) and instrumental (P<.001) function items. The statistical significance of these differences was confirmed in a multiple linear regression analysis correcting for numerous factors known to influence disability in older people. Executive function test performance declined along with increasing leukoaraiosis severity and was significantly related to DAD total score. CONCLUSION: Even in nondisabled elderly patients, levels of functional ability are related to white matter lesion severity. Executive dysfunction may mediate this relationship.
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  • Ropele, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitation of brain tissue changes associated with white matter hyperintensities by diffusion-weighted and magnetization transfer imaging: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. - 1053-1807. ; 29:2, s. 268-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) for the improved detection and quantification of cerebral tissue changes associated with ageing and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DWI (n = 340) and MTI (n = 177) were performed in nine centers of the multinational Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study investigating the impact of WMH on 65- to 85-year-old individuals without prior disability. We assessed the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and within WMH and related them to subjects' age and WHM severity according to the Fazekas score. RESULTS: ADC and MTR values showed a significant inter-site variation, which was stronger for the MTR. After z-transformation multiple regression analysis revealed WMH severity and age as significant predictors of global ADC and MTR changes. Only lesional ADC, but not MTR was related to WMH severity. CONCLUSION: ADC and MTR are both sensitive for age and WMH related changes in NABT. The ADC is more sensitive for tissue changes within WMH and appears to be more robust for multicenter settings.
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