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1.
  • Furberg, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:5, s. 134-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior1,2. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], b = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, beta = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], b = 0.367, s. e. = 0.059, beta = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], b = 0.446, s. e. = 0.074, beta = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], b = 0.333, s. e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.
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2.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS medicine. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1549-1676 .- 1549-1277. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). METHODS AND FINDINGS: All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2)>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A-) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction)  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.
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3.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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5.
  • Ben-Avraham, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • The complex genetics of gait speed : Genome-wide meta-analysis approach
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Aging. - : Impact Journals. - 1945-4589. ; 9:1, s. 209-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging evidence suggests that the basis for variation in late-life mobility is attributable, in part, to genetic factors, which may become increasingly important with age. Our objective was to systematically assess the contribution of genetic variation to gait speed in older individuals. We conducted a meta-analysis of gait speed GWASs in 31,478 older adults from 17 cohorts of the CHARGE consortium, and validated our results in 2,588 older adults from 4 independent studies. We followed our initial discoveries with network and eQTL analysis of candidate signals in tissues. The meta-analysis resulted in a list of 536 suggestive genome wide significant SNPs in or near 69 genes. Further interrogation with Pathway Analysis placed gait speed as a polygenic complex trait in five major networks. Subsequent eQTL analysis revealed several SNPs significantly associated with the expression of PRSS16, WDSUB1 and PTPRT, which in addition to the meta-analysis and pathway suggested that genetic effects on gait speed may occur through synaptic function and neuronal development pathways. No genome-wide significant signals for gait speed were identified from this moderately large sample of older adults, suggesting that more refined physical function phenotypes will be needed to identify the genetic basis of gait speed in aging.
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6.
  • Boeger, Carsten A., et al. (författare)
  • CUBN Is a Gene Locus for Albuminuria
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 22:3, s. 555-570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European ancestry with genotype information from genome-wide association studies (CKDGen Consortium) and from a large candidate gene study (CARe Consortium) to identify susceptibility loci for the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the clinical diagnosis microalbuminuria. We identified an association between a missense variant (I2984V) in the CUBN gene, which encodes cubilin, and both UACR (P = 1.1 x 10(-11)) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). We observed similar associations among 6981 African Americans in the CARe Consortium. The associations between this variant and both UACR and microalbuminuria were significant in individuals of European ancestry regardless of diabetes status. Finally, this variant associated with a 41% increased risk for the development of persistent microalbuminuria during 20 years of follow-up among 1304 participants with type 1 diabetes in the prospective DCCT/EDIC Study. In summary, we identified a missense CUBN variant that associates with levels of albuminuria in both the general population and in individuals with diabetes.
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7.
  • Bolton, Jennifer L, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.
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8.
  • Buglione, Luigi, et al. (författare)
  • Which COSMIC Base Functional Components are Significant in Estimating Web Application Development? : A Case Study
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estimation is still a challenging process for planning and managing software projects. Often, estimates are being done on experiential or analogous basis or using effort estimation models. Mostly, these approaches take software size (e.g., Lines of Code, Function Points, Object points) and other cost factors as the main inputs to estimation. This study focuses on functional size based effort estimation for Web application development and investigates the significance of the functional sizes of each of the COSMIC Base Functional Component (BFC) types in explaining the variation in the development effort. A case study was conducted collecting data on 25 Web projects from a software organization. The results show that the size of only one of the BFC Types can explain the variation in the effort nearly as good as the total functional size.
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9.
  • Butler, Anne M., et al. (författare)
  • Novel Loci Associated With PR Interval in a Genome-Wide Association Study of 10 African American Cohorts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - : American Heart Association. - 1942-325X. ; 5:6, s. 639-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-The PR interval, as measured by the resting, standard 12-lead ECG, reflects the duration of atrial/atrioventricular nodal depolarization. Substantial evidence exists for a genetic contribution to PR, including genome-wide association studies that have identified common genetic variants at 9 loci influencing PR in populations of European and Asian descent. However, few studies have examined loci associated with PR in African Americans. Methods and Results-We present results from the largest genome-wide association study to date of PR in 13 415 adults of African descent from 10 cohorts. We tested for association between PR (ms) and approximate to 2.8 million genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Imputation was performed using HapMap 2 YRI and CEU panels. Study-specific results, adjusted for global ancestry and clinical correlates of PR, were meta-analyzed using the inverse variance method. Variation in genome-wide test statistic distributions was noted within studies (lambda range: 0.9-1.1), although not after genomic control correction was applied to the overall meta-analysis (lambda: 1.008). In addition to generalizing previously reported associations with MEIS1, SCN5A, ARHGAP24, CAV1, and TBX5 to African American populations at the genome-wide significance level (P<5.0x10(-8)), we also identified a novel locus: ITGA9, located in a region previously implicated in SCN5A expression. The 3p21 region harboring SCN5A also contained 2 additional independent secondary signals influencing PR (P<5.0x10-8). Conclusions-This study demonstrates the ability to map novel loci in African Americans as well as the generalizability of loci associated with PR across populations of African, European, and Asian descent. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:639-646.)
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10.
  • Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia, et al. (författare)
  • Body mass trajectories and multimorbidity in old age : 12-year results from a population-based study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - 0261-5614 .- 1532-1983. ; 40:12, s. 5764-5770
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & aims: Body weight changes reflect and impact several health conditions in older age, but little is known about its relationship with multimorbidity. We aimed to study the association of long-terms trajectories of body mass index (BMI) with contemporaneous changes in multimorbidity −and multimorbidity type− development in a population-based cohort of older adults.Methods: Twelve-year BMI trajectories (2001–2013) were identified in subjects aged 60+ years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) using growth mixture models (N = 2189). Information on 60 chronic diseases and multimorbidity was ascertained based on clinical examinations, lab tests, medications, and inpatient and outpatient medical records. Linear mixed models were used to study the association between BMI trajectories and the speed of chronic disease accumulation, in general and by groups of cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric diseases.Results: Eighty percent of the study population was included in what we defined a stable BMI trajectory, 18% in a slow-decline trajectory with an accelerated BMI decline from age 78 onwards, and 2% in a fast-decline trajectory that reached underweight values before age 85. A significantly higher yearly rate of chronic disease accumulation was observed in the fast-decline versus stable trajectory (β = 0.221, 95% CI 0.090–0.352) after adjusting the model for age cohort, sex, education and time to death. Subjects in the slow-decline trajectory showed a significantly higher yearly rate of cardiovascular disease accumulation (β = 0.016, 95% CI 0.000–0.031); those in the fast-decline trajectory showed a faster accumulation of both cardiovascular (β = 0.020, 95% CI -0.025, 0.064) and neuropsychiatric diseases (β = 0.102, 95% CI 0.064–0.139), even if the former association did not reach statistical significance.Conclusion: Our results provide further evidence of the importance of carefully monitoring older adults with sustained weight loss, which is an early indicator of accelerated health deterioration, reflected in our study by a faster accumulation of chronic −especially neuropsychiatric− diseases.
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