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Sökning: WFRF:(Fiske Brian)

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1.
  • Heckman, Michael G., et al. (författare)
  • Population-specific Frequencies for LRRK2 Susceptibility Variants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 28:12, s. 1740-1744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundVariants within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 variation related to disease susceptibility displays many features that reflect the nature of complex, late-onset sporadic disorders like Parkinson's disease. MethodsThe Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium recently performed the largest genetic association study for variants in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene across 23 different sites in 15 countries. ResultsHerein, we detail the allele frequencies for the novel risk factors (p.A419V and p.M1646T) and the protective haplotype (p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K) nominated in the original publication. Simple population allele frequencies not only can provide insight into the clinical relevance of specific variants but also can help genetically define patient groups. ConclusionsEstablishing individual patient-based genomic susceptibility profiles that incorporate both risk factors and protective factors will determine future diagnostic and treatment strategies. (c) 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
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2.
  • Ross, Owen A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of LRRK2 exonic variants with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a case-control study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 10:10, s. 898-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals with and without PD, to investigate the role of the variants in PD susceptibility. Methods LRRK2 was genotyped in patients with PD and controls from three series (white, Asian, and Arab-Berber) from sites participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium. Genotyping was done for exonic variants of LRRK2 that were identified through searches of literature and the personal communications of consortium members. Associations with PD were assessed by use of logistic regression models. For variants that had a minor allele frequency of 0.5% or greater, single variant associations were assessed, whereas for rarer variants information was collapsed across variants. Findings 121 exonic LRRK2 variants were assessed in 15 540 individuals: 6995 white patients with PD and 5595 controls, 1376 Asian patients and 962 controls, and 240 Arab-Berber patients and 372 controls. After exclusion of carriers of known pathogenic mutations, new independent risk associations were identified for polymorphic variants in white individuals (M1646T, odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.78; p=0.0012) and Asian individuals (A419V, 2.27, 1.35-3.83; p=0.0011). A protective haplotype (N551K-R1398H-K1423K) was noted at a frequency greater than 5% in the white and Asian series, with a similar finding in the Arab-Berber series (combined odds ratio 0.82, 0.72-0.94; p=0.0043). Of the two previously reported Asian risk variants, G2385R was associated with disease (1.73, 1.20-2.49; p=0.0026), but no association was noted for R1628P (0.62, 0.36-1.07; p=0.087). In the Arab-Berber series, Y2189C showed potential evidence of risk association with PD (4.48, 133-15.09; p=0.012). Interpretation The results for LRRK2 show that several rare and common genetic variants in the same gene can have independent effects on disease risk. LRRK2, and the pathway in which it functions, is important in the cause and pathogenesis of PD in a greater proportion of patients with this disease than previously believed. These results will help discriminate those patients who will benefit most from therapies targeted at LRRK2 pathogenic activity. Funding Michael J Fox Foundation and National Institutes of Health.
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3.
  • Barker, Roger A., et al. (författare)
  • GDNF and Parkinson's Disease : Where Next? A Summary from a Recent Workshop
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1877-7171. ; 10:3, s. 875-891
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of repairing the brain with growth factors has been pursued for many years in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including primarily Parkinson's disease (PD) using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). This neurotrophic factor was discovered in 1993 and shown to have selective effects on promoting survival and regeneration of certain populations of neurons including the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. These observations led to a series of clinical trials in PD patients including using infusions or gene delivery of GDNF or the related growth factor, neurturin (NRTN). Initial studies, some of which were open label, suggested that this approach could be of value in PD when the agent was injected into the putamen rather than the cerebral ventricles. In subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, the most recent reporting in 2019, treatment with GDNF did not achieve its primary end point. As a result, there has been uncertainty as to whether GDNF (and by extrapolation, related GDNF family neurotrophic factors) has merit in the future treatment of PD. To critically appraise the existing work and its future, a special workshop was held to discuss and debate this issue. This paper is a summary of that meeting with recommendations on whether there is a future for this therapeutic approach and also what any future PD trial involving GDNF and other GDNF family neurotrophic factors should consider in its design.
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4.
  • Castelli Dransart, Dolores Angela, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic review of older adults’ request for or attitude toward euthanasia or assisted-suicide
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health. - 1360-7863. ; 25:3, s. 420-430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Prevalence rates of death by euthanasia (EUT) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have increased among older adults, and public debates on these practices are still taking place. In this context, it seemed important to conduct a systematic review of the predictors (demographic, physical health, psychological, social, quality of life, religious, or existential) associated with attitudes toward, wishes and requests for, as well as death by EUT/PAS among individuals aged 60 years and over.Method: The search for quantitative studies in PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases was conducted three times from February 2016 until April 2018. Articles of probable relevance (n = 327) were assessed for eligibility. Studies that only presented descriptive data (n = 306) were excluded.Results: This review identified 21 studies with predictive analyses, but in only 4 did older adults face actual end-of-life decisions. Most studies (17) investigated attitudes toward EUT/PAS (9 through hypothetical scenarios). Younger age, lower religiosity, higher education, and higher socio-economic status were the most consistent predictors of endorsement of EUT/PAS. Findings were heterogeneous with regard to physical health, psychological, and social factors. Findings were difficult to compare across studies because of the variety of sample characteristics and outcomes measures.Conclusion: Future studies should adopt common and explicit definitions of EUT/PAS, as well as research designs (e.g. mixed longitudinal) that allow for better consideration of personal, social, and cultural factors, and their interplay, on EUT/PAS decisions.
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5.
  • Grenn, Francis P., et al. (författare)
  • The Parkinson's Disease Genome-Wide Association Study Locus Browser
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with an often complex component identifiable by genome-wide association studies. The most recent large-scale PD genome-wide association studies have identified more than 90 independent risk variants for PD risk and progression across more than 80 genomic regions. One major challenge in current genomics is the identification of the causal gene(s) and variant(s) at each genome-wide association study locus. The objective of the current study was to create a tool that would display data for relevant PD risk loci and provide guidance with the prioritization of causal genes and potential mechanisms at each locus. Methods: We included all significant genome-wide signals from multiple recent PD genome-wide association studies including themost recent PD risk genome-wide association study, age-at-onset genome-wide association study, progression genome-wide association study, and Asian population PD risk genome-wide association study. We gathered data for all genes 1 Mb up and downstream of each variant to allow users to assess which gene(s) are most associated with the variant of interest based on a set of self-ranked criteria. Multiple databases were queried for each gene to collect additional causal data. Results: We created a PD genome-wide association study browser tool (https://pdgenetics.shinyapps.io/GWASBrowser/) to assist the PD research community with the prioritization of genes for follow-up functional studies to identify potential therapeutic targets. Conclusions: Our PD genome-wide association study browser tool provides users with a useful method of identifying potential causal genes at all known PD risk loci from large-scale PD genome-wide association studies. We plan to update this tool with new relevant data as sample sizes increase and new PD risk loci are discovered.
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