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Sökning: WFRF:(Fitzgerald Rebecca C)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 18
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Huyghe, Jeroen R., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:1, s. 76-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 x 10(-8), bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to similar to 100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Kruppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
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2.
  • Schmit, Stephanie L., et al. (författare)
  • Novel Common Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 111:2, s. 146-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5x10(-8)) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk.Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5x10(-8)) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5x10(-8), of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0.Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.
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3.
  • Ek, W. E., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in genes in the androgen pathway and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 138:5, s. 1146-1152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The strong male predominance in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains inadequately explained, but sex hormones might be involved. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the androgen pathway influence risk of developing BE and EAC. This genetic-epidemiological analysis included 14 studies from Australia, Europe and North America. Polymorphisms in 16 genes coding for the androgen pathway were analyzed using a gene-based approach: versatile gene-based test association study. This method evaluates associations between a trait and all SNPs within a specific gene rather than each SNP marker individually as in a conventional GWAS. The data were stratified for sex, body-mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, tobacco smoking and gastroesophageal reflux status. Included were data from 1,508 EAC patients, 2,383 BE patients and 2,170 control participants. SNPs within the gene CYP17A1 were associated with risk of BE in the sexes combined (p=0.002) and in males (p=0.003), but not in females separately (p=0.3). This association was found in tobacco smokers (p=0.003) and in BE patients without reflux (p=0.004), but not in nonsmokers (p=0.2) or those with reflux (p=0.036). SNPs within JMJD1C were associated with risk of EAC in females (p=0.001). However, none of these associations replicated in a subsequent sample. Fourteen other genes studied did not reach statistically significant levels of association with BE, EAC or the combination of BE and EAC, after correcting for the number of genes included in the analysis. In conclusion, genetic variants in the androgen-related genes CYP17A1 and JMJD1C might be associated with risk of BE and EAC, respectively, but replication data with larger sample sizes are needed.
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4.
  • Lagergren, K., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in Genes of Relevance for Oestrogen and Oxytocin Pathways and Risk of Barrett's Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Pooled Analysis from the BEACON Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and Barrett's oesophagus (BO) continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute. This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1), receptor beta (ESR2), and aromatase (CYP19A1)), and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), oxytocin protein (OXT), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38)), were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS). Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058) and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023). Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035) and in males (p = 0.0012). We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only. Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.
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7.
  • Rhind, Nicholas, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 332:6032, s. 930-936
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fission yeast clade-comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus-occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, which suggests a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the budding yeast of Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade.
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8.
  • Schipper, C. Ian, et al. (författare)
  • Silicic conduits as supersized tuffisites : Clastogenic influences on shifting eruption styles at Cordon Caulle volcano (Chile)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of Volcanology. - : Springer Nature. - 0258-8900 .- 1432-0819. ; 83:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the processes that drive explosive-effusive transitions during large silicic eruptions is crucial to hazard mitigation. Conduit models usually treat magma ascent and degassing as a gradual, unidirectional progression from bubble nucleation through magmatic fragmentation. However, there is growing evidence for the importance of bi-directional clastogenic processes that sinter fragmented materials into coherent clastogenic magmas. Bombs that were ejected immediately before the first emergence of lava in the 2011-2012 eruption at Cordon Caulle volcano (Chile) are texturally heterogeneous composite assemblages of welded pyroclastic material. Although diverse in density and appearance, SEM and X-ray tomographic analysis show them all to have been formed by multi-generational viscous sintering of fine ash. Sintering created discrete clasts ranging from obsidian to pumice and formed a pervasive clast-supporting matrix that assembled these clasts into a conduit-sealing plug. An evaluation of sintering timescales reveals texturally disparate bomb components to represent only minutes of difference in residence time within the conduit. Permeability modelling indicates that the plug was an effective conduit seal, with outgassing potential-even from high-porosity regions-being limited by the inability of gas to flow across tendrils of densely sintered inter-clast matrix. Contrary to traditional perspectives, declining expressions of explosivity at the surface need not be preceded or accompanied by a decline in fragmentation efficiency. Instead, they result from tips in balance between the opposing processes of fragmentation and sintering that occur in countless cycles within volcanic conduits. These processes may be particularly enhanced at silicic fissure volcanoes, which have laterally extensive subsurface plumbing systems that require complex magma ascent pathways. The textures investigated here reveal the processes occurring within silicic fissures to be phenomenologically identical to those that have been inferred to occur in tuffisite veins: silicic conduits are essentially supersized examples of edifice-penetrating tuffisites.
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9.
  • Tarneberg, William, et al. (författare)
  • Towards Intelligent Industry 4.0 5G Networks : A First Throughput and QoE Measurement Campaign
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: 2020 28th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks, SoftCOM 2020. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 9789532900996 - 9781728175386
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 5G promises to usher in the industrial 4.0 era. In that era, intricately managed autonomous industrial sites with for example remotely controller equipment and autonomous units promise previously unseen levels of efficiency. Although such scenarios are elusive, they come with strict long-since established safety requirements. To uphold such requirements, intelligent industrial 5G networks, that actively take into account prevailing conditions and dynamics of the workers on the site, the equipment, and the network, are needed. Little is known about the dynamics of actual industrial 5G networks and the interplay between network performance and QoE. In this paper, as a step towards intelligent industrial 5G networks, we measure network performance for an industrial 5G network, and conduct QoE experiments with remote controlled industrial equipment on an operational site. The results revealed unexpected relationships between QoE and network performance that shows how important domain-specific knowledge is when researching intelligent industrial 5G networks.
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10.
  • Wall, Rebecca, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Role of gut microbiota in early infant development
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Medicine. - Auckland, New Zealand : Libertas Academica Ltd.. - 1178-220X. ; 3, s. 45-54
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal inflammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1) the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics that positively influence the enteric microbiota by selectively promoting growth of beneficial bacteria and 2) oral administration of probiotic bacteria which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the complex microbiota of the adult is difficult to change in the long-term, there is greater impact of the diet on infant microbiota as this is not as stable as in adults. Decreasing excessive use of antibiotics and increasing the use of pre- and probiotics have shown to be beneficial in the prevention of several important infant diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and atopic eczema as well as improvement of short and long-term health. This review addresses how the composition of the gut microbiota becomes established in early life, its relevance to infant health, and dietary means by which it can be manipulated.
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