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Sökning: WFRF:(Fleshner Neil)

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  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
  • Fitzpatrick, John M., et al. (författare)
  • Optimizing treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer : expert recommendations and the multidisciplinary approach
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. - : Elsevier BV. - 1040-8428 .- 1879-0461. ; 68:Suppl.1, s. S9-S22
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A multidisciplinary panel of 20 international experts, including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists, convened during the Advanced Prostate Cancer Multidisciplinary Team meeting in Rome, Italy, in January 2007, to discuss the multidisciplinary team approach and current patterns of care for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). During the meeting, the experts discussed several definitions currently used in prostate cancer management, including those for senior adult patients. In addition, the panel reviewed a series of patient case studies in order to provide feedback on current treatment practices and to identify possible strategies for best practice. It was stressed that treatment decisions for senior adult patients should not be based solely on patient age. Additionally, although historically treatment decisions for advanced prostate cancer have focused on palliative care, given the survival benefit associated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy across patient subgroups, more men are likely to be offered chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease in the future.
  • Gandaglia, Giorgio, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology and Prevention of Prostate Cancer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Urology Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 2588-9311. ; 4:6, s. 877-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Worldwide, prostate cancer (PCa) represents the second most common solid tumor in men.OBJECTIVE: To assess the geographical distribution of PCa, epidemiological differences, and the most relevant risk factors for the disease.EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Estimated incidence, mortality, and prevalence of PCa for the year 2020 in 185 countries were derived from the IARC GLOBOCAN database. A review of English-language articles published between 2010 and 2020 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus to identify risk factors for PCa.EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In the year 2020, there were over 1414000 estimated new cases of PCa worldwide, with an age-standardized rate (ASR) incidence of 31 per 100000 (lifetime cumulative risk: 3.9%). Northern Europe has the highest all-age incidence ASR (83), while the lowest ASR was in South-Central Asia (6.3). In the year 2020, there were over 375000 estimated deaths worldwide, and the overall mortality ASR was 7.7 per 100000, with the highest ASR in the Caribbean (28) and the lowest in South-Central Asia (3.1). Family history, hereditary syndromes, and race are the strongest risk factors for PCa. Metabolic syndrome was associated with the risk of developing PCa, high-grade disease, and adverse pathology. Diabetes and exposure to ultraviolet rays were found to be inversely associated to PCa incidence. Cigarette smoking and obesity may increase PCa-specific mortality, while regular physical activity may reduce disease progression. Although 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are known to be associated with a reduced incidence of PCa, available studies failed to show an effect on overall mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Family history, race, and hereditary syndromes are well-established risk factors for PCa. Modifiable risk factors may impact the risk of developing PCa and that of dying from the disease, but little evidence exist for any clear indication for prevention other than early diagnosis to reduce PCa mortality.PATIENT SUMMARY: Prostate cancer (PCa) rates vary profoundly worldwide, with incidence and mortality rates being highest in Northern Europe and Caribbean, respectively. South-Central Asia has the lowest epidemiological burden. Family history, race, and hereditary syndromes are well-established risk factors for PCa. Modifiable risk factors may impact the risk of developing PCa and that of dying from the disease itself, but little evidence exist for any clear indication for prevention other than early diagnosis to reduce PCa mortality.
  • Westhoff, Ellen, et al. (författare)
  • Body Mass Index, Diet-Related Factors, and Bladder Cancer Prognosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). - 2352-3727. ; 4:1, s. 91-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urologists are frequently confronted with questions of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients about what they can do to improve their prognosis. Unfortunately, it is largely unknown which lifestyle factors can influence prognosis.To systematically review the available evidence on the association between body mass index (BMI), diet, dietary supplements, and physical activity and UBC prognosis.We searched PubMed and Embase up to May 2017. We included thirty-one articles reporting on observational and randomized controlled trials investigating BMI, diet and dietary supplements in relation to recurrence, progression, cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in UBC patients.In non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, both overweight (3 studies, pooled hazard ratio (HR) 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.58, I2 = 0%) as well as obesity (3 studies, pooled HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.12-2.95, I2 = 79%) were associated with increased risk of recurrence when compared to normal weight. No association of BMI with risk of progression was found. Results for BMI and prognosis in muscle-invasive or in all stages series were inconsistent. Observational studies on diet and randomized controlled trials with dietary supplements showed inconsistent results. No studies on physical activity and UBC prognosis have been published to date.Evidence for an association of lifestyle factors with UBC prognosis is limited, with some evidence for an association of BMI with risk of recurrence in NMIBC. Well-designed, prospective studies are needed to develop evidence-based guidelines on this topic.
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