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Sökning: WFRF:(Flint Robert B.)

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1.
  • Kitahara, Cari M., et al. (författare)
  • Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m(2)) and Mortality : A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 11:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]>= 40 kg/m(2)) has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity. Methods and Findings: In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex-and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19-83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0-59.9 kg/m(2)) compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema) on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (19762009). Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences = 238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively), followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences = 36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively) and diabetes (rate differences = 51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively). Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40-44.9, 45-49.9, 50-54.9, and 55-59.9 kg/m(2) was associated with an estimated 6.5 (95% CI: 5.7-7.3), 8.9 (95% CI: 7.4-10.4), 9.8 (95% CI: 7.4-12.2), and 13.7 (95% CI: 10.5-16.9) y of life lost. A limitation was that BMI was mainly ascertained by self-report. Conclusions: Class III obesity is associated with substantially elevated rates of total mortality, with most of the excess deaths due to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, and major reductions in life expectancy compared with normal weight.
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2.
  • Wu, Yunjiao, et al. (författare)
  • Pre- and Postnatal Maturation are Important for Fentanyl Exposure in Preterm and Term Newborns : A Pooled Population Pharmacokinetic Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacokinetics. - : Adis International. - 0312-5963. ; 61:3, s. 401-412
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective: Fentanyl is an opioid commonly used to prevent and treat severe pain in neonates; however, its use is off label and mostly based on bodyweight. Given the limited pharmacokinetic information across the entire neonatal age range, we characterized the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl across preterm and term neonates to individualize dosing. Methods: We pooled data from two previous studies on 164 newborns with a median gestational age of 29.0 weeks (range 23.9–42.3), birthweight of 1055 g (range 390–4245), and postnatal age (PNA) of 1 day (range 0–68). In total, 673 plasma samples upon bolus dosing (69 patients; median dose 2.1 μg/kg, median 2 boluses per patient) or continuous infusions (95 patients; median dose 1.1 μg/kg/h for 30 h) with and without boluses were used for population pharmacokinetic modeling in NONMEM® 7.4. Results: Clearance in neonates with birthweight of 2000 and 3000 g was 2.8- and 5.0-fold the clearance in a neonate with birthweight of 1000 g, respectively. Fentanyl clearance at PNA of 7, 14, and 21 days was 2.7-fold, 3.8-fold, and 4.6-fold the clearance at 1 day, respectively. Bodyweight-based dosing resulted in large differences in fentanyl concentrations. Depending on PNA and birthweight, fentanyl concentrations increased slowly after the start of therapy for both intermittent boluses and continuous infusion and reached a maximum concentration at 12–48 h. Conclusions: As both prenatal and postnatal maturation are important for fentanyl exposure, we propose a birthweight- and PNA-based dosage regimen. To provide rapid analgesia in the first 24 h of treatment, additional loading doses need to be considered.
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