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Sökning: WFRF:(Florez HJ)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Fontana, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Transport and release of colloidal 3-mercaptopropionic acid-coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Nanomedicine. - : Dove Medical Press Ltd. - 1178-2013 .- 1176-9114. ; 12, s. 8615-8629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been extensively researched and developed for biomedical applications, including drug delivery and biosensing assays. Hence, it is pivotal to understand their behavior in terms of intracellular transport and toxicological effects. In this study, we focused on 3-mercaptopropionic acid-coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (3MPA-QDs) converted from the as-grown octadecylamine-coated quantum dots (ODA-QDs) and their direct and dynamic interactions with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Live cell imaging using confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that 3MPAQDs first attached to and subsequently aggregated on HUVEC plasma membrane similar to 25 min after QD deposition. The aggregated QDs started being internalized at similar to 2 h and reached their highest internalization degree at similar to 24 h. They were released from HUVECs after similar to 48 h. During the 48 h period, the HUVECs responded normally to external stimulations, grew, proliferated and wound healed without any perceptible apoptosis. Furthermore, 1) 3MPA-QDs were internalized in newly formed LysoTracker-stained early endosomes; 2) adenosine 5'-triphosphateinduced [Ca2+](i) modulation caused a transient decrease in the fluorescence of 3MPA-QDs that were attached to the plasma membrane but a transient increase in the internalized 3MPA-QDs; and 3) fluorescence signal modulations of co-stained LysoTracker and QDs induced by the lysosomotropic agent Gly-Phe-beta-naphthylamide were spatially co-localized and temporally synchronized. Our findings suggest that 3MPA-QDs converted from ODA-QDs are a potential nontoxic fluorescent probe for future use in clinical applications. Moreover, the photophysical strategy and techniques reported in this work are easily applicable to study of direct interactions between other nanoparticles and live cells; contributing to awareness and implementation of the safe applications of nanoparticles.
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3.
  • Chen, Ji, et al. (författare)
  • The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:6, s. 840-860
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10-8), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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