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Sökning: WFRF:(Fontani F.)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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  • Fomalont, E. B., et al. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 808:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to similar to 15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at similar to 350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
  • Coutens, A., et al. (författare)
  • VLA cm-wave survey of young stellar objects in the Oph A cluster: Constraining extreme UV- And X-ray-driven disk photoevaporation: A pathfinder for Square Kilometre Array studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) in centimeter bands can probe the continuum emission from growing dust grains, ionized winds, and magnetospheric activity that are intimately connected to the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets. We carried out sensitive continuum observations toward the Ophiuchus A star-forming region, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 10 GHz over a field-of-view of 6′ and with a spatial resolution of θmaj ×θmin ∼ 0.′′4 × 0.′′2. We achieved a 5 μJy beam-1 rms noise level at the center of our mosaic field of view. Among the 18 sources we detected, 16 were YSOs (three Class 0, five Class I, six Class II, and two Class III) and two were extragalactic candidates. We find that thermal dust emission generally contributed less than 30% of the emission at 10 GHz. The radio emission is dominated by other types of emission, such as gyro-synchrotron radiation from active magnetospheres, free-free emission from thermal jets, free-free emission from the outflowing photoevaporated disk material, and synchrotron emission from accelerated cosmic-rays in jet or protostellar surface shocks. These different types of emission could not be clearly disentangled. Our non-detections for Class II/III disks suggest that extreme UV-driven photoevaporation is insufficient to explain disk dispersal, assuming that the contribution of UV photoevaporating stellar winds to radio flux does not evolve over time. The sensitivity of our data cannot exclude photoevaporation due to the role of X-ray photons as an efficient mechanism for disk dispersal. Deeper surveys using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will have the capacity to provide significant constraints to disk photoevaporation.
  • Cosentino, Giuliana, 1990, et al. (författare)
  • SiO emission as a probe of cloud-cloud collisions in infrared dark clouds
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 499:2, s. 1666-1681
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are very dense and highly extincted regions that host the initial conditions of star and stellar cluster formation. It is crucial to study the kinematics and molecular content of IRDCs to test their formation mechanism and ultimately characterize these initial conditions. We have obtained high-sensitivity Silicon Monoxide, SiO(2-1), emission maps towards the six IRDCs, G018.82-00.28, G019.27+00.07, G028.53-00.25, G028.67+00.13, G038.95-00.47, and G053.11+00.05 (cloud A, B, D, E, I, and J, respectively), using the 30-m antenna at the Instituto de Radioastronomia Millimetrica (IRAM30m). We have investigated the SiO spatial distribution and kinematic structure across the six clouds to look for signatures of cloud-cloud collision events that may have formed the IRDCs and triggered star formation within them. Towards clouds A, B, D, I, and J, we detect spatially compact SiO emission with broad-line profiles that are spatially coincident with massive cores. Towards the IRDCs A and I, we report an additional SiO component that shows narrow-line profiles and that is widespread across quiescent regions. Finally, we do not detect any significant SiO emission towards cloud E. We suggest that the broad and compact SiO emission detected towards the clouds is likely associated with ongoing star formation activity within the IRDCs. However, the additional narrow and widespread SiO emission detected towards cloud A and I may have originated from the collision between the IRDCs and flows of molecular gas pushed towards the clouds by nearby H II regions.
  • Fontani, F., et al. (författare)
  • Fragmentation properties of massive protocluster gas clumps: an ALMA study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - 1432-0746 .- 0004-6361. ; 615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fragmentation of massive dense molecular clouds is the starting point in the formation of rich clusters and massive stars. Theory and numerical simulations indicate that the population of the fragments (number, mass, diameter, and separation) resulting from the gravitational collapse of such clumps is probably regulated by the balance between the magnetic field and the other competitors of self-gravity, in particular, turbulence and protostellar feedback. We have observed 11 massive, dense, and young star-forming clumps with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in the thermal dust continuum emission at similar to 1 mm with an angular resolution of 0 ''.25 with the aim of determining their population of fragments. The targets have been selected from a sample of massive molecular clumps with limited or absent star formation activity and hence limited feedback. We find fragments on sub-arcsecond scales in 8 out of the 11 sources. The ALMA images indicate two different fragmentation modes: a dominant fragment surrounded by companions with much lower mass and smaller size, and many (>= 8) fragments with a gradual change in masses and sizes. The morphologies are very different, with three sources that show filament-like distributions of the fragments, while the others have irregular geometry. On average, the largest number of fragments is found towards the warmer and more massive clumps. The warmer clumps also tend to form fragments with higher mass and larger size. To understand the role of the different physical parameters in regulating the final population of the fragments, we simulated the collapse of a massive clump of 100 and 300 M-circle dot with different magnetic support. The 300 M-circle dot case was also run for different initial temperatures and Mach numbers M to evaluate the separate role of each of these parameters. The simulations indicate that (1) fragmentation is inhibited when the initial turbulence is low (M similar to 3), independent of the other physical parameters. This would indicate that the number of fragments in our clumps can be explained assuming a high (M similar to 6) initial turbulence, although an initial density profile different to that assumed can play a relevant role. (2) A filamentary distribution of the fragments is favoured in a highly magnetised clump. We conclude that the clumps that show many fragments distributed in a filament-like structure are likely characterised by a strong magnetic field, while the other morphologies are also possible in a weaker magnetic field.
  • Fontani, F., et al. (författare)
  • Magnetically regulated fragmentation of a massive, dense, and turbulent clump
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 593
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © ESO, 2016. Massive stars, multiple stellar systems, and clusters are born of the gravitational collapse of massive, dense, gaseous clumps, and the way these systems form strongly depends on how the parent clump fragments into cores during collapse. Numerical simulations show that magnetic fields may be the key ingredient in regulating fragmentation. Here we present ALMA observations at ∼ 0.25′′ resolution of the thermal dust continuum emission at ∼ 278 GHz towards a turbulent, dense, and massive clump, IRAS 16061-5048c1, in a very early evolutionary stage. The ALMA image shows that the clump has fragmented into many cores along a filamentary structure. We find that the number, the total mass, and the spatial distribution of the fragments are consistent with fragmentation dominated by a strong magnetic field. Our observations support the theoretical prediction that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in the fragmentation process of massive turbulent clumps.
  • Sokolov, V., et al. (författare)
  • Temperature structure and kinematics of the IRDC G035.39-00.33
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © ESO, 2017. Aims. Infrared dark clouds represent the earliest stages of high-mass star formation. Detailed observations of their physical conditions on all physical scales are required to improve our understanding of their role in fueling star formation. Methods. We investigate the large-scale structure of the IRDC G035.39-00.33, probing the dense gas with the classical ammonia thermometer. This allows us to put reliable constraints on the temperature of the extended, pc-scale dense gas reservoir and to probe the magnitude of its non-Thermal motions. Available far-infrared observations can be used in tandem with the observed ammonia emission to estimate the total gas mass contained in G035.39-00.33. Results. We identify a main velocity component as a prominent filament, manifested as an ammonia emission intensity ridge spanning more than 6 pc, consistent with the previous studies on the Northern part of the cloud. A number of additional line-of-sight components are found, and a large-scale linear velocity gradient of ~ 0.2km s -1 pc -1 is found along the ridge of the IRDC. In contrast to the dust temperature map, an ammonia-derived kinetic temperature map, presented for the entirety of the cloud, reveals local temperature enhancements towards the massive protostellar cores. We show that without properly accounting for the line of sight contamination, the dust temperature is 2-3 K larger than the gas temperature measured with NH 3 . Conclusions. While both the large-scale kinematics and temperature structure are consistent with that of starless dark filaments, the kinetic gas temperature profile on smaller scales is suggestive of tracing the heating mechanism coincident with the locations of massive protostellar cores.
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