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Sökning: WFRF:(Forman J)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 48
  • [1]2345Nästa
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1.
  • Huyghe, Jeroen R., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:1, s. 76-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 x 10(-8), bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to similar to 100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Kruppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
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2.
  • Pierre, M., et al. (författare)
  • The XXL survey : First results and future
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten. - : Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. - 0004-6337 .- 1521-3994. ; 338:2-3, s. 334-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The XXL survey currently covers two 25 deg(2) patches with XMM observations of similar to 10 ks. We summarize the scientific results associated with the first release of the XXL dataset, which occurred in mid-2016. We review several arguments for increasing the survey depth to 40 ks during the next decade of XMM operations. X-ray (z < 2) cluster, (z < 4) active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cosmic background survey science will then benefit from an extraordinary data reservoir. This, combined with deep multi-lambda observations, will lead to solid standalone cosmological constraints and provide a wealth of information on the formation and evolution of AGN, clusters, and the X-ray background. In particular, it will offer a unique opportunity to pinpoint the z > 1 cluster density. It will eventually constitute a reference study and an ideal calibration field for the upcoming eROSITA and Euclid missions.
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3.
  • Wilman, H. R., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of abdominal MRI data identify genes regulating hepcidin as major determinants of liver iron concentration
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 71:3, s. 594-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Excess liver iron content is common and is linked to the risk of hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. We aimed to identify genetic variants influencing liver iron content and use genetics to understand its link to other traits and diseases. Methods: First, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,289 individuals from UK Biobank, whose liver iron level had been quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, before validating our findings in an independent cohort (n = 1,513 from IMI DIRECT). Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to test the causal effects of 25 predominantly metabolic traits on liver iron content. Third, we tested phenome-wide associations between liver iron variants and 770 traits and disease outcomes. Results: We identified 3 independent genetic variants (rs1800562 [C282Y] and rs1799945 [H63D] in HFE and rs855791 [V736A] in TMPRSS6) associated with liver iron content that reached the GWAS significance threshold (p <5 × 10−8). The 2 HFE variants account for ∼85% of all cases of hereditary haemochromatosis. Mendelian randomisation analysis provided evidence that higher central obesity plays a causal role in increased liver iron content. Phenome-wide association analysis demonstrated shared aetiopathogenic mechanisms for elevated liver iron, high blood pressure, cirrhosis, malignancies, neuropsychiatric and rheumatological conditions, while also highlighting inverse associations with anaemias, lipidaemias and ischaemic heart disease. Conclusion: Our study provides genetic evidence that mechanisms underlying higher liver iron content are likely systemic rather than organ specific, that higher central obesity is causally associated with higher liver iron, and that liver iron shares common aetiology with multiple metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. Lay summary: Excess liver iron content is common and is associated with liver diseases and metabolic diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. We identified 3 genetic variants that are linked to an increased risk of developing higher liver iron content. We show that the same genetic variants are linked to higher risk of many diseases, but they may also be associated with some health advantages. Finally, we use genetic variants associated with waist-to-hip ratio as a tool to show that central obesity is causally associated with increased liver iron content.
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4.
  • Bar, N., et al. (författare)
  • A reference map of potential determinants for the human serum metabolome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Research. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 588:7836, s. 135-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The serum metabolome contains a plethora of biomarkers and causative agents of various diseases, some of which are endogenously produced and some that have been taken up from the environment1. The origins of specific compounds are known, including metabolites that are highly heritable2,3, or those that are influenced by the gut microbiome4, by lifestyle choices such as smoking5, or by diet6. However, the key determinants of most metabolites are still poorly understood. Here we measured the levels of 1,251 metabolites in serum samples from a unique and deeply phenotyped healthy human cohort of 491 individuals. We applied machine-learning algorithms to predict metabolite levels in held-out individuals on the basis of host genetics, gut microbiome, clinical parameters, diet, lifestyle and anthropometric measurements, and obtained statistically significant predictions for more than 76% of the profiled metabolites. Diet and microbiome had the strongest predictive power, and each explained hundreds of metabolites—in some cases, explaining more than 50% of the observed variance. We further validated microbiome-related predictions by showing a high replication rate in two geographically independent cohorts7,8 that were not available to us when we trained the algorithms. We used feature attribution analysis9 to reveal specific dietary and bacterial interactions. We further demonstrate that some of these interactions might be causal, as some metabolites that we predicted to be positively associated with bread were found to increase after a randomized clinical trial of bread intervention. Overall, our results reveal potential determinants of more than 800 metabolites, paving the way towards a mechanistic understanding of alterations in metabolites under different conditions and to designing interventions for manipulating the levels of circulating metabolites. 
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5.
  • Kim, Haesook T., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic Score and Cytogenetic Risk Classification for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients : Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Report
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 25:16, s. 5143-5155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To develop a prognostic model and cytogenetic risk classification for previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).Experimental Design: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 606 patients with CLL who underwent RIC allogeneic HCT between 2008 and 2014 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.Results: On the basis of multivariable models, disease status, comorbidity index, lymphocyte count, and white blood cell count at HCT were selected for the development of prognostic model. Using the prognostic score, we stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk [4-year progression-free survival (PFS) 58%, 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, P < 0.0001; 4-year overall survival (OS) 70%, 57%, 54%, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.0001]. We also evaluated karyotypic abnormalities together with del(17p) and found that del(17p) or >= 5 abnormalities showed inferior PFS. Using a multivariable model, we classified cytogenetic risk into low, intermediate, and high (P < 0.0001). When the prognostic score and cytogenetic risk were combined, patients with low prognostic score and low cytogenetic risk had prolonged PFS (61% at 4 years) and OS (75% at 4 years).Conclusions: In this large cohort of patients with previously treated CLL who underwent RIC HCT, we developed a robust prognostic scoring system of HCT outcomes and a novel cytogenetic-based risk stratification system. These prognostic models can be used for counseling patients, comparing data across studies, and providing a benchmark for future interventions. For future study, we will further validate these models for patients receiving targeted therapies prior to HCT.
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6.
  • van Weeren, R. J., et al. (författare)
  • LOFAR Facet Calibration
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. - 1538-4365 .- 0067-0049. ; 223:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • LOFAR, the Low-Frequency Array, is a powerful new radio telescope operating between 10 and 240 MHz. LOFAR allows detailed sensitive high-resolution studies of the low-frequency radio sky. At the same time LOFAR also provides excellent short baseline coverage to map diffuse extended emission. However, producing highquality deep images is challenging due to the presence of direction-dependent calibration errors, caused by imperfect knowledge of the station beam shapes and the ionosphere. Furthermore, the large data volume and presence of station clock errors present additional difficulties. In this paper we present a new calibration scheme, which we name facet calibration, to obtain deep high-resolution LOFAR High Band Antenna images using the Dutch part of the array. This scheme solves and corrects the direction-dependent errors in a number of facets that cover the observed field of view. Facet calibration provides close to thermal noise limited images for a typical 8 hr observing run at similar to 5. resolution, meeting the specifications of the LOFAR Tier-1 northern survey.
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7.
  • van Weeren, R. J., et al. (författare)
  • LOFAR, VLA, AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 818:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present deep LOFAR observations between 120 and 181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+ 4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of alpha = -0.8 +/- 0.1 at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening toward the south to alpha approximate to-2. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform (alpha = -1.16, with an intrinsic scatter of
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8.
  • Coleman, M P, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer survival in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the UK, 1995-2007 (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership) : an analysis of population-based cancer registry data
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 377:9760, s. 127-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cancer survival is a key measure of the effectiveness of health-care systems. Persistent regional and international differences in survival represent many avoidable deaths. Differences in survival have prompted or guided cancer control strategies. This is the first study in a programme to investigate international survival disparities, with the aim of informing health policy to raise standards and reduce inequalities in survival. METHODS: Data from population-based cancer registries in 12 jurisdictions in six countries were provided for 2·4 million adults diagnosed with primary colorectal, lung, breast (women), or ovarian cancer during 1995-2007, with follow-up to Dec 31, 2007. Data quality control and analyses were done centrally with a common protocol, overseen by external experts. We estimated 1-year and 5-year relative survival, constructing 252 complete life tables to control for background mortality by age, sex, and calendar year. We report age-specific and age-standardised relative survival at 1 and 5 years, and 5-year survival conditional on survival to the first anniversary of diagnosis. We also examined incidence and mortality trends during 1985-2005. FINDINGS: Relative survival improved during 1995-2007 for all four cancers in all jurisdictions. Survival was persistently higher in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, intermediate in Norway, and lower in Denmark, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, particularly in the first year after diagnosis and for patients aged 65 years and older. International differences narrowed at all ages for breast cancer, from about 9% to 5% at 1 year and from about 14% to 8% at 5 years, but less or not at all for the other cancers. For colorectal cancer, the international range narrowed only for patients aged 65 years and older, by 2-6% at 1 year and by 2-3% at 5 years. INTERPRETATION: Up-to-date survival trends show increases but persistent differences between countries. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality are broadly consistent with these trends in survival. Data quality and changes in classification are not likely explanations. The patterns are consistent with later diagnosis or differences in treatment, particularly in Denmark and the UK, and in patients aged 65 years and older. FUNDING: Department of Health, England; and Cancer Research UK.
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10.
  • Alexopoulou, E., et al. (författare)
  • Embryo Morphokinetics and Blastocyst Development After GnRH Agonist versus hCG Triggering in Normo-ovulatory Women: a Secondary Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Reproductive Sciences. - 1933-7191. ; 28, s. 2972-2981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final oocyte maturation, along with vitrification of all usable embryos followed by transfer in a subsequent frozen-thawed cycle, is the most effective strategy to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). However, less is known about the ovulation induction triggers effect on early embryo development and blastocyst formation. This study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial, with the aim to compare embryo development in normo-ovulatory women, randomized to GnRHa or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger. In all, 4056 retrieved oocytes were observed, 1998 from the GnRHa group (216 women) and 2058 from the hCG group (218 women). A number of retrieved oocytes, mature and fertilized oocytes, and high-quality embryos and blastocysts were similar between the groups. A sub-analysis in 250 women enrolled at the main trial site including 2073 oocytes was conducted to compare embryo morphokinetics and cleavage patterns with EmbryoScope time-lapse system. In total, 1013 oocytes were retrieved from the GnRHa group (124 women) and 1060 oocytes were retrieved from the hCG group (126 women). Morphokinetic parameters and cleavage patterns were comparable between the groups. However, embryos derived from the GnRHa group were less likely to perform rolling during their development than the embryos from the hCG trigger group (OR = 0.41 (95%CI 0.25; 0.67), p-value 0.0003). The comparable results on embryo development and utilization rates between the GnRHa and hCG triggers is of clinical relevance to professionals and infertile patients, when GnRHa trigger and freeze-all is performed to avoid OHSS development. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02746562
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 48
  • [1]2345Nästa

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