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1.
  • Gustafsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Effekter av vinterdäck : en kunskapsöversikt
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Choice of winter tyres has, from mainly being a matter of safety and economic costs for wearing of road pavements, during later years also become a matter of inhalable particles formed during pavement wear from studded tyres and their negative effects on public health. Further, the tyres' effects on environment and noise have been illustrated in several studies. The issue is also complicated by the fact that tyre choice effects on traffic safety have several components, including such diverging parameters as friction and behaviour. Finally all aspects have to be evaluated from a socioeconomic point of view for society to be able to decide which kind of distribution of tyre types that is the most profitable. This report is a summary of current knowledge in this complex research field.
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2.
  • Silverforsen, D., et al. (författare)
  • Snoring and environmental exposure: results from the Swedish GA2LEN study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 11:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveHabitual snoring is associated with fatigue, headaches and low work performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate if snoring is affected by environmental factors such as home dampness and exposure to air pollution.SettingGeneral population sample from four Swedish cities.Participants25 848 participants from the Swedish part of the epidemiological Global Asthma and Allergy and European network of excellence study carried out in 2008. The participants completed a postal questionnaire on snoring and, indoor and outdoor environmental exposure as well as potential confounders including smoking, weight, height and educational level.ResultsOf the participants, 4211 (16.3%) were habitual snorers. Habitual snorers reported water damage (8.3% vs 7.0% p<0.0001), floor dampness (4.6% vs 3.8% % p<0.0001) and visible mould (5.2% vs 3.8% p<0.0001) in their homes more often than non-snorers. Habitual snorers stated being annoyed by air pollution more often than non-snorers with habitual snorers reporting being irritated with the air in their residential area to a higher extent (sometimes 16.2% vs 13.9%, and daily 4.6% vs 3.1%) as well as annoyance from traffic fumes (somewhat 19% vs 18.5% and very 5% vs 3.6%) (p<0.0001). These results remained significant after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking history and educational level.ConclusionSnoring is more prevalent in subjects reporting home dampness and air pollution. These association should be confirmed in further research using objective measurements and a longitudinal approach.
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3.
  • Adam, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE : a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 41:5, s. 38-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
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4.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor : the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-8517 .- 1523-5866. ; 20:3, s. 420-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5–10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89–3.14 per 10–5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38–2.71 per 10–5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.
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5.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - Research triangle park : US department of health. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 125:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent.OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m(3)], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m(3)], and NO(2) [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m(3), p=0.04].CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.
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6.
  • Andersson, John, et al. (författare)
  • PM2.5 exposure and olfactory functions
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Health Research. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0960-3123 .- 1369-1619. ; , s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Growing evidence indicates that air pollution can negatively impact cognitive functions. The olfactory system is interesting in this context as it is directly exposed to pollutants and also associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate long- and short-term PM2.5 exposure in association with olfactory functions. Scores from odor tests were obtained from the Betula project - a longitudinal cohort study. Estimates of annual mean PM2.5 concentrations at the participants' residential address were obtained from a dispersion-model. Daily mean PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from a measuring station close to the test location. We found a positive association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and odor identification, i.e. exposure was associated with a better ability to identify odors. We also found an interaction effect between PM2.5 and age on odor identification. We found no associations between any PM2.5 exposure and odor detection or between short-term PM2.5 exposure and olfactory functions.
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7.
  • Andersson, John, et al. (författare)
  • Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia : results from the Betula project
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 166, s. 334-339
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.
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8.
  • Andersson, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Med värme ihågkommen
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med detta projekt har varit att med hjälp av en intervjustudie och kunskapsgenomgång redovisahur utomhusmiljö, gemensamhetslokaler och bostäder kan utformas för att minska risken för att äldreoch personer med nedsatt funktionsförmåga blir medtagna eller dör i förtid under värmeböljor. Måletär att öka medvetenheten och intresset för anpassning av miljö och byggnader hos personer ansvarigaför samhällsplanering, bostadsbestånd, trygghets-, vård- och omsorgsboenden.Städer är normalt varmare och mindre blåsiga än det omgivande landskapet. Städernas ”varmareklimat” beror främst på den större värmelagring som kan ske i byggnader, gator, trottoarer mm,begränsat med vegetation som kan skugga och avge fukt samt aktiviteter som trafik och eldning vilketgenererar värme. Under värmeböljor ökar dödligheten mer i städer. Att leva ensam, vara sängbundenoch bo på översta våningen har visats vara riskfaktorer.Åtgärderna för att minska stadens värmeö och värmeböljornas effekter på människor brukar iblanddelas in i ”mjuka åtgärder” (information, varningssystem för värmeböljor, insatser för känsligagrupper), ”gröna åtgärder” (göra staden till en grönare miljö) och ”tekniska åtgärder” (skuggandekonstruktioner, modifiering av väggar, kylning/luftkonditionering inomhus etc.), vilka kompletterarvarandra. I vissa länder, bl. a. England, ska äldreboenden ha ett samlingsrum som kan hållas svaltäven under värmeböljor, men det är oklart vilken juridisk status som bestämmelserna har.Intervjustudien syftade till att belysa hur problemen uppfattas av personal inom äldreomsorgen iSverige. Som datainsamlingsmetod genomfördes 20 semistrukturerade intervjuer medomvårdnadspersonal i Botkyrka kommun under oktober 2011. Urvalet baserades påtillgänglighetsprincipen. Innehållsanalyser gjordes på transkriberad intervjudata och kategorier ochunderkategorier skapades utifrån återkommande teman som återfanns i texten. Slutsatserna frånstudien pekar på att de utbildnings- och informationsinsatser angående värmeböljors effekter påkänsliga grupper som riktas till personal inom äldreomsorgen borde intensifieras, samt attpersonalens kunskap om verksamheten och vårdtagarnas behov borde tas tillvara redan iplaneringsstadiet för äldreboenden.
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9.
  • Andersson, Martin, 1979- (författare)
  • Asthma in school age : prevalence, incidence and remission in relation to environmental determinants
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background In the past half-century, the prevalence of asthma among children and adolescents has risen and asthma has become an important public health challenge in Sweden as well as in many other countries, necessitating further studies on this complex disease and its risk factor pattern. The studies included in this thesis aimed to investigate the clinical expression of childhood asthma over time, to describe the determinants of new-onset and remission of asthma, and to evaluate possible environmental risk factors in northern Sweden.Methods As the result of a repeated questionnaire survey among primary school children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities in the north of Sweden, two pediatric cohorts were formed, one in 1996 (n=3430) and one in 2006 (n=2585). The cohort created in 1996 was followed annually until the age of 19 years. Skin prick testing was performed on children in both cohorts. Lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity testing were carried out in children with asthma in the first cohort. The study participation and retention rates were very high in both cohorts. Among children in the second cohort living in Luleå, the home addresses were assigned to coordinates in a geographical information system (GIS) to evaluate the impact on respiratory health of living near roads with much traffic, which was measured as the number of vehicles daily. We used a validated reported diagnosis of asthma and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questions were incorporated into the questionnaire. A cross-sectional study of children of the same age ten years apart, longitudinal studies on asthma incidence and remission as well as a cross-sectional study on vehicle traffic were performed.Results While children aged 7-8 years in 2006 more often had a physician-diagnosed asthma compared to children of the same age in 1996 (7.4% vs 5.7%, p<0.001), they had less asthma symptoms, especially severe symptoms. In parallel, a more beneficial environment and a more intense treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were observed. The explanation for this change in clinical expression probably includes also an increased awareness and diagnosing of asthma. From age 12 years to age 19 years, the cumulative incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.2% and of current wheeze 22.0%. The risk of new-onset asthma in adolescence was increased among girls, sensitized and those with heredity for asthma. Smoking and home dampness increased the risk for incident wheeze. The risk for both incident asthma and wheeze was inversely related to number of siblings. Among children with current asthma at age 7-8 years, 21% were in remission, 38% had periodic asthma and 41% had persistent asthma at a follow-up at age 19 years. Subjects in remission and with periodic asthma had significantly less airway obstruction and showed less bronchial hyperreactivity compared to subjects with persistent asthma. The probability of asthma remission from childhood to early adulthood was significantly increased by absence of allergic sensitization, male gender and a low asthma severity scoring at age 7-8 years. Sensitization to furred animals was more important as a determinant of both incidence and remission than sensitization to pollen. Living close to roads with high traffic flows, especially with heavy vehicles, was associated with an increased risk for current wheeze. Stratified analyses showed that the effect of traffic on asthma and wheeze was restricted to non-sensitized subjects.Conclusion Asthma onset in adolescence was more common among girls and remission was more common among boys. Children sensitized to furred animals and children with a more severe asthma were risk groups for persistence of asthma. Environmental factors such as smoking and dampness were associated to onset of asthma symptoms during adolescence, and vehicle traffic was associated with asthma symptoms among children also in a small city with relatively low traffic flows. Preventive measures like smoking reduction programs, improvement of damp housing conditions and separation of areas where many children live from heavily trafficked roads could prove to be beneficial.
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10.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Early life swimming pool exposure and asthma onset in children : a case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - : BioMed Central. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trichloramine exposure in indoor swimming pools has been suggested to cause asthma in children. We aimed to investigate the risk of asthma onset among children in relation to individual trichloramine exposure.METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study of 337 children with asthma (cases) and 633 controls aged 16-17 years was performed within a population-based cohort from The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies (OLIN). Year of asthma onset and exposure time at different ages were obtained in telephone interviews. Trichloramine concentrations in the pool buildings were measured. Skin prick test results for inhalant allergens were available from previous examinations of the cohort. The risk for asthma was analyzed in relation to the cumulative trichloramine exposure before onset of asthma.RESULTS: Swimming pool exposure in early life was associated with a significantly higher risk of pre-school asthma onset. A dose-response relationship between swimming pool exposure and asthma was indicated in children with asthma onset at 1 year of age. Children who were both sensitized and exposed had a particularly high risk.CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to chlorinated swimming pool environments was associated with pre-school asthma onset.
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