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Sökning: WFRF:(Fortin Marie Josee)

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1.
  • Albouy, Camille, et al. (författare)
  • The marine fish food web is globally connected
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2397-334X. ; 3:8, s. 1153-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The productivity of marine ecosystems and the services they provide to humans are largely dependent on complex interactions between prey and predators. These are embedded in a diverse network of trophic interactions, resulting in a cascade of events following perturbations such as species extinction. The sheer scale of oceans, however, precludes the characterization of marine feeding networks through de novo sampling. This effort ought instead to rely on a combination of extensive data and inference. Here we investigate how the distribution of trophic interactions at the global scale shapes the marine fish food web structure. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous distribution of species ranges in biogeographic regions should concentrate interactions in the warmest areas and within species groups. We find that the inferred global metaweb of marine fish-that is, all possible potential feeding links between co-occurring species-is highly connected geographically with a low degree of spatial modularity. Metrics of network structure correlate with sea surface temperature and tend to peak towards the tropics. In contrast to open-water communities, coastal food webs have greater interaction redundancy, which may confer robustness to species extinction. Our results suggest that marine ecosystems are connected yet display some resistance to perturbations because of high robustness at most locations.
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2.
  • Saura, Santiago, et al. (författare)
  • Stepping stones are crucial for species' long-distance dispersal and range expansion through habitat networks
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 51:1, s. 171-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate and land-use changes will require species to move large distances following shifts in their suitable habitats, which will frequently involve traversing intensively human-modified landscapes. Practitioners will therefore need to evaluate and act to enhance the degree to which habitat patches scattered throughout the landscape may function as stepping stones facilitating dispersal among otherwise isolated habitat areas. We formulate a new generalized network model of habitat connectivity that accounts for the number of dispersing individuals and for long-distance dispersal processes across generations. By doing so, we bridge the gap between complex dynamic population models, which are generally too data demanding and hence difficult to apply in practical wide-scale decision-making, and simpler static connectivity models that only consider the amount of habitat that can be reached by a single average disperser during its life span. We find that the loss of intermediate and sufficiently large stepping-stone habitat patches can cause a sharp decline in the distance that can be traversed by species (critical spatial thresholds) that cannot be effectively compensated by other factors previously regarded as crucial for long-distance dispersal (fat-tailed dispersal kernels, source population size). We corroborate our findings by showing that our model largely outperforms previous connectivity models in explaining the large-scale range expansion of a forest bird species, the Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius, over a 20-year period. The capacity of species to exploit the opportunities created by networks of stepping-stone patches largely depends on species-specific life-history traits, suggesting that species assemblages traversing fragmented landscapes may be exposed to a spatial filtering process driving long-term changes in community composition.Synthesis and applications. Previous static connectivity models seriously underestimate the importance of stepping-stone patches in sustaining rare but crucial dispersal events. We provide a conceptually broader model that shows that stepping stones (i) must be of sufficient size to be of conservation value, (ii) are particularly crucial for the spread of species (either native or invasive) or genotypes over long distances and (iii) can effectively reduce the isolation of the largest habitat blocks in reserves, therefore largely contributing to species persistence across wide spatial and temporal scales. Previous static connectivity models seriously underestimate the importance of stepping-stone patches in sustaining rare but crucial dispersal events. We provide a conceptually broader model that shows that stepping stones (i) must be of sufficient size to be of conservation value, (ii) are particularly crucial for the spread of species (either native or invasive) or genotypes over long distances and (iii) can effectively reduce the isolation of the largest habitat blocks in reserves, therefore largely contributing to species persistence across wide spatial and temporal scales. Editor's Choice
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3.
  • Xuereb, Amanda, et al. (författare)
  • Putatively adaptive genetic variation in the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) as revealed by environmental association analysis of restriction-site associated DNA sequencing data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - : WILEY. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 27:24, s. 5035-5048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the spatial scale of local adaptation and the factors associated with adaptive diversity are important objectives for ecology and evolutionary biology, and have significant implications for effective conservation and management of wild populations and natural resources. In this study, we used an environmental association analysis to identify important bioclimatic variables correlated with putatively adaptive genetic variation in a benthic marine invertebrate-the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus)-spanning coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. We used a redundancy analysis (RDA) with 3,699 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained using RAD sequencing to detect candidate markers associated with 11 bioclimatic variables, including sea bottom and surface conditions, across two spatial scales (entire study area and within subregions). At the broadest scale, RDA revealed 59 candidate SNPs, 86% of which were associated with mean bottom temperature. Similar patterns were identified when population structure was accounted for. Additive polygenic scores, which provide a measure of the cumulative signal across all candidate SNPs, were strongly correlated with mean bottom temperature, consistent with spatially varying selection across a thermal gradient. At a finer scale, 23 candidate SNPs were detected, primarily associated with surface salinity (26%) and bottom current velocity (17%). Our findings suggest that environmental variables may play a role as drivers of spatially varying selection for P. californicus. These results provide context for future studies to evaluate the genetic basis of local adaptation in P. californicus and help inform the relevant scales and environmental variables for in situ field studies of putative adaptive variation in marine invertebrates.
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