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Sökning: WFRF:(Franke Barbara)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 51
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1.
  • Bonfiglio, F., et al. (författare)
  • Female-Specific Association Between Variants on Chromosome 9 and Self-Reported Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 155:1, s. 168-179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic factors are believed to affect risk for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there have been no sufficiently powered and adequately sized studies. To identify DNA variants associated with IBS risk, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the large UK Biobank population-based cohort, which includes genotype and health data from 500,000 participants. METHODS: We studied 7,287,191 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms in individuals who self-reported a doctor's diagnosis of IBS (cases; n = 9576) compared to the remainder of the cohort (controls; n = 336,499) (mean age of study subjects, 40-69 years). Genome-wide significant findings were further investigated in 2045 patients with IBS from tertiary centers and 7955 population controls from Europe and the United States, and a small general population sample from Sweden (n = 249). Functional annotation of GWAS results was carried out by integrating data from multiple biorepositories to obtain biological insights from the observed associations. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant association on chromosome 9q31.2 (single nucleotide polymorphism rs10512344; P = 3.57 x 10(-8)) in a region previously linked to age at menarche, and 13 additional loci of suggestive significance (P < 5.0 x 10(-6)). Sex-stratified analyses revealed that the variants at 9q31.2 affect risk of IBS in women only (P = 4.29 x 10(-10) in UK Biobank) and also associate with constipation-predominant IBS in women (P = .015 in the tertiary cohort) and harder stools in women (P = .0012 in the population-based sample). Functional annotation of the 9q31.2 locus identified 8 candidate genes, including the elongator complex protein 1 gene (ELP1 or IKB-KAP), which is mutated in patients with familial dysautonomia. CONCLUSIONS: In a sufficiently powered GWAS of IBS, we associated variants at the locus 9q31.2 with risk of IBS in women. This observation may provide additional rationale for investigating the role of sex hormones and autonomic dysfunction in IBS.
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3.
  • Henstrom, M., et al. (författare)
  • Functional variants in the sucrase-isomaltase gene associate with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 67:2, s. 263-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective IBS is a common gut disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. Among other factors, genetics and certain foods are proposed to contribute. Congenital sucraseisomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a rare genetic form of disaccharide malabsorption characterised by diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, which are features common to IBS. We tested sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants for their potential relevance in IBS. Design We sequenced SI exons in seven familial cases, and screened four CSID mutations (p.Val557Gly, p. Gly1073Asp, p.Arg1124Ter and p.Phe1745Cys) and a common SI coding polymorphism (p.Val15Phe) in a multicentre cohort of 1887 cases and controls. We studied the effect of the 15Val to 15Phe substitution on SI function in vitro. We analysed p.Val15Phe genotype in relation to IBS status, stool frequency and faecal microbiota composition in 250 individuals from the general population. Results CSID mutations were more common in patients than asymptomatic controls (p=0.074; OR=1.84) and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference sequenced individuals (p=0.020; OR=1.57). 15Phe was detected in 6/7 sequenced familial cases, and increased IBS risk in case-control and population-based cohorts, with best evidence for diarrhoea phenotypes (combined p=0.00012; OR=1.36). In the population-based sample, 15Phe allele dosage correlated with stool frequency (p=0.026) and Parabacteroides faecal microbiota abundance (p=0.0024). The SI protein with 15Phe exhibited 35% reduced enzymatic activity in vitro compared with 15Val (p<0.05). Conclusions SI gene variants coding for disaccharidases with defective or reduced enzymatic activity predispose to IBS. This may help the identification of individuals at risk, and contribute to personalising treatment options in a subset of patients.
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4.
  • Okbay, Aysu, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 533:7604, s. 539-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample(1,2) of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
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5.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:5, s. 501-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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6.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:5, s. 501-U69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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7.
  • Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of human brainstem structures and their involvement in common brain disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinson's disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders. The genetic architecture underlying brainstem regions and how this links to common brain disorders is not well understood. Here, the authors use MRI and GWAS data from 27,034 individuals to identify genetic and morphological brainstem features that influence common brain disorders.
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8.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 197-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
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9.
  • Lu, Yingchang, et al. (författare)
  • New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.
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10.
  • Schwarz, Emanuel, et al. (författare)
  • Reproducible grey matter patterns index a multivariate, global alteration of brain structure in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.
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