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Sökning: WFRF:(Fredriksson Simon)

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  • Bertilsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Stress Levels Escalate When Repeatedly Performing Tasks Involving Threats
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-1078. ; 10, s. 1562-1562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Police work may include performing repeated tasks under the influence of psychological stress, which can affect perceptual, cognitive and motor performance. However, it is largely unknown how repeatedly performing stressful tasks physically affect police officers in terms of heart rate and pupil diameter properties. Psychological stress is commonly assessed by monitoring the changes in these biomarkers. Heart rate and pupil diameter was measured in 12 male police officers when performing a sequence of four stressful tasks, each lasting between 20 and 130 s. The participants were first placed in a dimly illuminated anteroom before allowed to enter a brightly lit room where a scenario was played out. After each task was performed, the participants returned to the anteroom for about 30 s before performing the next sequential task. Performing a repeated sequence of stressful tasks caused a significant increase in heart rate (p = 0.005). The heart rate started to increase already before entering the scenario room and was significantly larger just after starting the task than just before starting the task (p < 0.001). This pattern was more marked during the first tasks (p < 0.001). Issuance of a verbal "abort" command which terminated the tasks led to a significant increase of heart rate (p = 0.002), especially when performing the first tasks (p = 0.002). The pupil diameter changed significantly during the repeated tasks during all phases but in a complex pattern where the pupil diameter reached a minimum during task 2 followed by an increase during tasks 3 and 4 (p ≤ 0.020). During the initial tasks, the pupil size (p = 0.014) increased significantly. The results suggest that being repeatedly exposed to stressful tasks can produce in itself an escalation of psychological stress, this even prior to being exposed to the task. However, the characteristics of both the heart rate and pupil diameter were complex, thus, the findings highlight the importance of studying the effects and dynamics of different stress-generating factors. Monitoring heart rate was found useful to screen for stress responses, and thus, to be a vehicle for indication if and when rotation of deployed personnel is necessary to avoid sustained high stress exposures.
  • Bertilsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Towards systematic and objective evaluation of police officer performance in stressful situations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Police Practice and Research. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1561-4263. ; 21:6, s. 655-669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To ensure a continuous high standard of police units, it is critical to recruit people who perform well in stressful situations. Today, this selection process includes performing a large series of tests, which still may not objectively reveal a person’s capacity to handle a life-threatening situation when subjected to high levels of stress. To obtain more systematic and objective data, 12 police officers were exposed to six scenarios with varying levels of threat while their heart rate and pupil size were monitored. The scenarios were filmed and six expert evaluators assessed the performance of the police officers according to seven predefined criteria. Four of the scenarios included addressing a moderate threat level task and the scenarios were executed in a rapid sequence. Two further scenarios included a familiar firearm drill performed during high and low threat situations. The results showed that there was a large agreement between the experts in how they judged the performance of the police officers (p < 0.001). Performance increased significantly over tasks in four of the seven evaluation criteria (p ≤ 0.037). There was also a significant effect of pupil size (p = 0.004), but not heart rate, when comparing the different sequential scenarios. Moreover, a high level of threat considerably impaired the motor performance of the police officers during the firearms drill (p = 0.002). Finally, the pupil seemed to systematically dilate more when a threat appeared immediately than with a delay in the scenarios (p = 0.007). We conclude that systematic and quantitative judgments from experts provide valuable and reliable information about the performance of participants in realistic and stressful policing scenarios. Furthermore, objective physiological measures of heart rate and pupil size may help to explain and understand why performance sometimes deteriorates.
  • Darmanis, Spyros, et al. (författare)
  • ProteinSeq : high-performance proteomic analyses by proximity ligation and next generation sequencing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:9, s. e25583-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite intense interest, methods that provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity in parallel measurements of candidate protein biomarkers in numerous samples have been lacking. We present herein a multiplex proximity ligation assay with readout via realtime PCR or DNA sequencing (ProteinSeq). We demonstrate improved sensitivity over conventional sandwich assays for simultaneous analysis of sets of 35 proteins in 5 μl of blood plasma. Importantly, we observe a minimal tendency to increased background with multiplexing, compared to a sandwich assay, suggesting that higher levels of multiplexing are possible. We used ProteinSeq to analyze proteins in plasma samples from cardiovascular disease (CVD) patient cohorts and matched controls. Three proteins, namely P-selectin, Cystatin-B and Kallikrein-6, were identified as putative diagnostic biomarkers for CVD. The latter two have not been previously reported in the literature and their potential roles must be validated in larger patient cohorts. We conclude that ProteinSeq is promising for screening large numbers of proteins and samples while the technology can provide a much-needed platform for validation of diagnostic markers in biobank samples and in clinical use. 
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
  • McGinn, Steven, et al. (författare)
  • New Technologies for DNA analysis-A review of the READNA Project.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: New Biotechnology. - : Elsevier. - 1876-4347 .- 1871-6784. ; 33:3, s. 311-330
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The REvolutionary Approaches and Devices for Nucleic Acid analysis (READNA) project received funding from the European Commission for 4 1/2 years. The objectives of the project revolved around technological developments in nucleic acid analysis. The project partners have discovered, created and developed a huge body of insights into nucleic acid analysis, ranging from improvements and implementation of current technologies to the most promising sequencing technologies that constitute a 3(rd) and 4(th) generation of sequencing methods with nanopores and in situ sequencing, respectively.
  • Muscarella, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • The global abundance of tree palms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - : Wiley. - 1466-822X .- 1466-8238. ; 29:9, s. 1495-1514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimPalms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change.LocationTropical and subtropical moist forests.Time periodCurrent.Major taxa studiedPalms (Arecaceae).MethodsWe assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co‐occurring non‐palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure.ResultsOn average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long‐term climate stability. Life‐form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non‐tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above‐ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work.ConclusionsTree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
  • Amin, Khabat, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of road safety trends 2020 : Management by objectives for road safety work towards the 2020 interim targets
  • 2021
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Swedish road safety management is based on the Vision Zero and designated interim targets to track progress towards its achievement. 2020 was the final year for achieving the interim target of halving the number of fatalities between 2007 and 2020, i.e., a maximum of 220 fatalities in 2020. The interim target also specifies that the number of seriously injured in road traffic must be reduced by a quarter. This report describes and analyses the current road safety trends in terms of road safety performance indicators and the numbers of fatalities and seriously injured. As this report is the last for the 2007-2020 interim target period, it can be seen as a final summary of how well the targets were achieved for fatalities and seriously injured and for the safety performance indicators. However, it is also important to remember that the year 2020 coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, which had a profound impact on virtually the entire society. This affected travel in a number of different ways, and consequently it is impossible to estimate the impact this has had on the outcome in 2020, although it probably has led to a slightly lower outcome. The table below shows starting and final values together with an overview of whether the safety performance indicators have met the 2020 targets.
  • Askar, Raad, et al. (författare)
  • Bioavailability of subcutaneous and intramuscular administrated buprenorphine in New Zealand White rabbits
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Veterinary Research. - 1746-6148 .- 1746-6148. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundBuprenorphine is one of the most used analgesics for postoperative pain in rabbits. The recommended dose in rabbits (0.01–0.05 mg/kg) is the same for intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration, despite lack of pharmacokinetic data. Five male and five female New Zealand White rabbits (mean ± SD body weight 3.1 ± 0.3 kg) were administered 0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine by the IV, IM and SC routes and 0.1 mg/kg by the SC route, in a cross-over design with two-week wash-out periods between treatments. Blood was collected before, and up to 8 h post buprenorphine injection, for determination of serum levels by UPHLC-MS/MS.ResultsThe area under the time concentration curve (AUC0-t) was lower after SC (398 ± 155 ng/mL/min) than IM (696 ± 168 ng/mL/min, p < 0.001) and IV (789 ± 189 ng/mL/min, p < 0.001) administration. The maximum serum concentration was lower after SC (2.2 ± 1.4 ng/mL) than after IM (11 ± 3.2 ng/mL) administration (p < 0.001). The bioavailability was lower after SC (50 ± 19%) than after IM (95 ± 21%) administration (p = 0.006). The elimination half-life was longer after SC (260 ± 120 min) than after IM (148 ± 26 min, p = 0.002) as well as IV (139 ± 33 min) injection (p < 0.001). An increase in the SC dose from 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg resulted in an increase in the area under the time concentration curve of 50% in female (p = 0.022) and 165% in male rabbits (p < 0.001). The bioavailability did not change in the females (36 ± 14%, p = 0.6), whereas it increased in the males (71 ± 23%, p = 0.008).ConclusionsThe lower bioavailability of 0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine after SC administration could explain the lack of efficacy seen in clinical pain studies in rabbits, using this route. For immediate pain relief, IV or IM administration is therefore be recommended, whereas SC administration may be useful to sustain analgesic serum levels, once efficient pain relief has been achieved. The current data do not support an increase in dose to compensate for the lower SC bioavailability.
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