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Sökning: WFRF:(Fremling C.)

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1.
  • Kasliwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Illuminating gravitational waves : A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 358:6370, s. 1559-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.
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2.
  • Leloudas, G., et al. (författare)
  • The superluminous transient ASASSN-15lh as a tidal disruption event from a Kerr black hole
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Astronomy. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2397-3366. ; 1:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When a star passes within the tidal radius of a supermassive black hole, it will be torn apart1. For a star with the mass of the Sun (M-circle dot) and a non-spinning black hole with a mass <10(8)M(circle dot), the tidal radius lies outside the black hole event horizon2 and the disruption results in a luminous flare(3-6). Here we report observations over a period of ten months of a transient, hitherto interpreted(7) as a superluminous supernova(8). Our data show that the transient rebrightened substantially in the ultraviolet and that the spectrum went through three different spectroscopic phases without ever becoming nebular. Our observations are more consistent with a tidal disruption event than a superluminous supernova because of the temperature evolution(6), the presence of highly ionized CNO gas in the line of sight(9) and our improved localization of the transient in the nucleus of a passive galaxy, where the presence of massive stars is highly unlikely(10,11). While the supermassive black hole has a mass >10(8)M(circle dot)(12,13), a star with the same mass as the Sun could be disrupted outside the event horizon if the black hole were spinning rapidly(14). The rapid spin and high black hole mass can explain the high luminosity of this event.
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3.
  • Gal-Yam, A., et al. (författare)
  • A WC/WO star exploding within an expanding carbon-oxygen-neon nebula
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 601:7892, s. 201-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The final fate of massive stars, and the nature of the compact remnants they leave behind (black holes and neutron stars), are open questions in astrophysics. Many massive stars are stripped of their outer hydrogen envelopes as they evolve. Such Wolf-Rayet stars(1) emit strong and rapidly expanding winds with speeds greater than 1,000 kilometres per second. A fraction of this population is also helium-depleted, with spectra dominated by highly ionized emission lines of carbon and oxygen (types WC/WO). Evidence indicates that the most commonly observed supernova explosions that lack hydrogen and helium (types Ib/Ic) cannot result from massive WC/WO stars(2,3), leading some to suggest that most such stars collapse directly into black holes without a visible supernova explosion(4). Here we report observations of SN 2019hgp, beginning about a day after the explosion. Its short rise time and rapid decline place it among an emerging population of rapidly evolving transients(5-8). Spectroscopy reveals a rich set of emission lines indicating that the explosion occurred within a nebula composed of carbon, oxygen and neon. Narrow absorption features show that this material is expanding at high velocities (greater than 1,500 kilometres per second), requiring a compact progenitor. Our observations are consistent with an explosion of a massive WC/WO star, and suggest that massive Wolf-Rayet stars may be the progenitors of some rapidly evolving transients.
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4.
  • Sollerman, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • The Type II supernova SN 2020jfo in M 61, implications for progenitor system, and explosion dynamics
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 655
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the discovery and extensive follow-up observations of SN 2020jfo, a Type IIP supernova (SN) in the nearby (14.5 Mpc) galaxy M 61. Optical light curves (LCs) and spectra from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), complemented with data from Swift/UVOT and near-infrared photometry is presented. These were used to model the 350-day duration bolometric light curve, which exhibits a relatively short (∼65 days) plateau. This implies a moderate ejecta mass (∼5 M⊙) at the time of explosion, whereas the deduced amount of ejected radioactive nickel is ∼0.025 M⊙. An extensive series of spectroscopy is presented, including spectropolarimetric observations. The nebular spectra are dominated by Hα, but also reveal emission lines from oxygen and calcium. Comparisons to synthetic nebular spectra indicate an initial progenitor mass of ∼12 M⊙. We also note the presence of stable nickel in the nebular spectrum, and SN 2020jfo joins a small group of SNe that have inferred super-solar Ni/Fe ratios. Several years of prediscovery data were examined, but no signs of precursor activity were found. Pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals a probable progenitor star, detected only in the reddest band (MF814W ≈ −5.8) and it is fainter than expected for stars in the 10−15 M⊙ range. There is thus some tension between the LC analysis, the nebular spectral modeling, and the pre-explosion imaging. To compare and contrast, we present two additional core-collapse SNe monitored by the ZTF, which also have nebular Hα-dominated spectra. This illustrates how the absence or presence of an interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) affect both the LCs and in particular the nebular spectra. Type II SN 2020amv has a LC powered by CSM interaction, in particular after ∼40 days when the LC is bumpy and slowly evolving. The late-time spectra show strong Hα emission with a structure suggesting emission from a thin, dense shell. The evolution of the complex three-horn line profile is reminiscent of that observed for SN 1998S. Finally, SN 2020jfv has a poorly constrained early-time LC, but it is of interest because of the transition from a hydrogen-poor Type IIb to a Type IIn, where the nebular spectrum after the light-curve rebrightening is dominated by Hα, although with an intermediate line width.
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5.
  • Ahumada, T., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery and confirmation of the shortest gamma-ray burst from a collapsar
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Astronomy. - : Springer Nature. - 2397-3366. ; 5:9, s. 917-927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the brightest and most energetic events in the Universe. The duration and hardness distribution of GRBs has two clusters1, now understood to reflect (at least) two different progenitors2. Short-hard GRBs (SGRBs; T90 < 2 s) arise from compact binary mergers, and long-soft GRBs (LGRBs; T90 > 2 s) have been attributed to the collapse of peculiar massive stars (collapsars)3. The discovery of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 (ref. 4) marked the first association of an LGRB with a collapsar, and AT 2017gfo (ref. 5)/GRB 170817A/GW170817 (ref. 6) marked the first association of an SGRB with a binary neutron star merger, which also produced a gravitational wave. Here, we present the discovery of ZTF20abwysqy (AT2020scz), a fast-fading optical transient in the Fermi satellite and the Interplanetary Network localization regions of GRB 200826A; X-ray and radio emission further confirm that this is the afterglow. Follow-up imaging (at rest-frame 16.5 days) reveals excess emission above the afterglow that cannot be explained as an underlying kilonova, but which is consistent with being the supernova. Although the GRB duration is short (rest-frame T90 of 0.65 s), our panchromatic follow-up data confirm a collapsar origin. GRB 200826A is the shortest LGRB found with an associated collapsar; it appears to sit on the brink between a successful and a failed collapsar. Our discovery is consistent with the hypothesis that most collapsars fail to produce ultra-relativistic jets.
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6.
  • Ahumada, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • In Search of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterparts with the Zwicky Transient Facility
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 932:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) triggers on-board in response to ∼40 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) per year; however, their large localization regions have made the search for optical counterparts a challenging endeavour. We have developed and executed an extensive program with the wide field of view of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) camera, mounted on the Palomar 48 inch Oschin telescope (P48), to perform target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations on 10 Fermi-GBM SGRBs during 2018 and 2020–2021. Bridging the large sky areas with small field-of-view optical telescopes in order to track the evolution of potential candidates, we look for the elusive SGRB afterglows and kilonovae (KNe) associated with these high-energy events. No counterpart has yet been found, even though more than 10 ground-based telescopes, part of the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) network, have taken part in these efforts. The candidate selection procedure and the follow-up strategy have shown that ZTF is an efficient instrument for searching for poorly localized SGRBs, retrieving a reasonable number of candidates to follow up and showing promising capabilities as the community approaches the multi-messenger era. Based on the median limiting magnitude of ZTF, our searches would have been able to retrieve a GW170817-like event up to ∼200 Mpc and SGRB afterglows to z = 0.16 or 0.4, depending on the assumed underlying energy model. Future ToOs will expand the horizon to z = 0.2 and 0.7, respectively.
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7.
  • Anand, S., et al. (författare)
  • Optical follow-up of the neutron star–black hole mergers S200105ae and S200115j
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Astronomy. - : Nature Research. - 2397-3366.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • LIGO and Virgo’s third observing run revealed the first neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger candidates in gravitational waves. These events are predicted to synthesize r-process elements1,2 creating optical/near-infrared ‘kilonova’ emission. The joint gravitational wave and electromagnetic detection of an NSBH merger could be used to constrain the equation of state of dense nuclear matter3, and independently measure the local expansion rate of the Universe4. Here, we present the optical follow-up and analysis of two of the only three high-significance NSBH merger candidates detected to date, S200105ae and S200115j, with the Zwicky Transient Facility5. The Zwicky Transient Facility observed ~48% of S200105ae and ~22% of S200115j’s localization probabilities, with observations sensitive to kilonovae brighter than −17.5 mag fading at 0.5 mag d−1 in the g- and r-bands; extensive searches and systematic follow-up of candidates did not yield a viable counterpart. We present state-of-the-art kilonova models tailored to NSBH systems that place constraints on the ejecta properties of these NSBH mergers. We show that with observed depths of apparent magnitude ~22 mag, attainable in metre-class, wide-field-of-view survey instruments, strong constraints on ejecta mass are possible, with the potential to rule out low mass ratios, high black hole spins and large neutron star radii.
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8.
  • Andreoni, Igor, et al. (författare)
  • Fast-transient Searches in Real Time with ZTFReST : Identification of Three Optically Discovered Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows and New Constraints on the Kilonova Rate
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 918:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The most common way to discover extragalactic fast transients, which fade within a few nights in the optical, is via follow-up of gamma-ray burst and gravitational-wave triggers. However, wide-field surveys have the potential to identify rapidly fading transients independently of such external triggers. The volumetric survey speed of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) makes it sensitive to objects as faint and fast fading as kilonovae, the optical counterparts to binary neutron star mergers, out to almost 200 Mpc. We introduce an open-source software infrastructure, the ZTF REaltime Search and Triggering, ZTFReST, designed to identify kilonovae and fast transients in ZTF data. Using the ZTF alert stream combined with forced point-spread-function photometry, we have implemented automated candidate ranking based on their photometric evolution and fitting to kilonova models. Automated triggering, with a human in the loop for monitoring, of follow-up systems has also been implemented. In 13 months of science validation, we found several extragalactic fast transients independently of any external trigger, including two supernovae with post-shock cooling emission, two known afterglows with an associated gamma-ray burst (ZTF20abbiixp, ZTF20abwysqy), two known afterglows without any known gamma-ray counterpart (ZTF20aajnksq, ZTF21aaeyldq), and three new fast-declining sources (ZTF20abtxwfx, ZTF20acozryr, ZTF21aagwbjr) that are likely associated with GRB200817A, GRB201103B, and GRB210204A. However, we have not found any objects that appear to be kilonovae. We constrain the rate of GW170817-like kilonovae to R < 900 Gpc(-3) yr(-1) (95% confidence). A framework such as ZTFReST could become a prime tool for kilonova and fast-transient discovery with the Vera Rubin Observatory.
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9.
  • Fremling, C., et al. (författare)
  • The Zwicky Transient Facility Bright Transient Survey. I. Spectroscopic Classification and the Redshift Completeness of Local Galaxy Catalogs
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 895:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is performing a three-day cadence survey of the visible northern sky (similar to 3 pi) with newly found transient candidates announced via public alerts. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS) is a large spectroscopic campaign to complement the photometric survey. BTS endeavors to spectroscopically classify all extragalactic transients with m(peak) <= 18.5 mag in either the g(ZTF) or r(ZTF) filters, and publicly announce said classifications. BTS discoveries are predominantly supernovae (SNe), making this the largest flux-limited SN survey to date. Here we present a catalog of 761 SNe, classified during the first nine months of ZTF (2018 April 1-2018 December 31). We report BTS SN redshifts from SN template matching and spectroscopic host-galaxy redshifts when available. We analyze the redshift completeness of local galaxy catalogs, the redshift completeness fraction (RCF; the ratio of SN host galaxies with known spectroscopic redshift prior to SN discovery to the total number of SN hosts). Of the 512 host galaxies with SNe Ia, 227 had previously known spectroscopic redshifts, yielding an RCF estimate of 44% 4%. The RCF decreases with increasing distance and decreasing galaxy luminosity (for z < 0.05, or similar to 200 Mpc, RCF 0.6). Prospects for dramatically increasing the RCF are limited to new multifiber spectroscopic instruments or wide-field narrowband surveys. Existing galaxy redshift catalogs are only similar to 50% complete at r 16.9 mag. Pushing this limit several magnitudes deeper will pay huge dividends when searching for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave events or sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays or neutrinos.
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10.
  • Gezari, S., et al. (författare)
  • iPTF Discovery of the Rapid Turn-on of a Luminous Quasar
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 835:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a radio-quiet quasar at z = 0.237 discovered turning on by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). The transient, iPTF 16bco, was detected by iPTF in the nucleus of a galaxy with an archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum with weak narrow-line emission characteristic of a low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER). Our follow-up spectra show the dramatic appearance of broad Balmer lines and a power-law continuum characteristic of a luminous (L-bol approximate to 10(45) erg s(-1)) type 1 quasar 12 yr later. Our photometric monitoring with PTF from 2009-2012 and serendipitous X-ray observations from the XMM-Newton Slew Survey in 2011 and 2015 constrain the change of state to have occurred less than 500 days before the iPTF detection. An enhanced broad H alpha/[O III] lambda 5007 line ratio in the type 1 state relative to other changing-look quasars also is suggestive of the most rapid change of state yet observed in a quasar. We argue that the > 10 increase in Eddington ratio inferred from the brightening in UV and X-ray continuum flux is more likely due to an intrinsic change in the accretion rate of a preexisting accretion disk than an external mechanism such as variable obscuration, microlensing, or the tidal disruption of a star. However, further monitoring will be helpful in better constraining the mechanism driving this change of state. The rapid turn-on of the quasar is much shorter than the viscous infall timescale of an accretion disk and requires a disk instability that can develop around a similar to 10(8) M circle dot black hole on timescales less than 1 yr.
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  • [1]234567...9Nästa

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