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Sökning: WFRF:(Garcia Lorena)

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  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Ferrando, Carlos, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of oxygen on post-surgical infections during an individualised perioperative open-lung ventilatory strategy : a randomised controlled trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Anaesthesia. - : ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 0007-0912 .- 1471-6771. ; 124:1, s. 110-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to examine whether using a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in the context of an individualised intra- and postoperative open-lung ventilation approach could decrease surgical site infection (SSI) in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. Methods: We performed a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial in a network of 21 university hospitals from June 6, 2017 to July 19, 2018. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive a high (0.80) or conventional (0.3) FIO2 during the intraoperative period and during the first 3 postoperative hours. All patients were mechanically ventilated with an open-lung strategy, which included recruitment manoeuvres and individualised positive end-expiratory pressure for the best respiratory-system compliance, and individualised continuous postoperative airway pressure for adequate peripheral oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI within the first 7 postoperative days. The secondary outcomes were composites of systemic complications, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and 6-month mortality. Results: We enrolled 740 subjects: 371 in the high FIO2 group and 369 in the low FIO2 group. Data from 717 subjects were available for final analysis. The rate of SSI during the first postoperative week did not differ between high (8.9%) and low (9.4%) FIO2 groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.50; P=0.90]). Secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis (7.7% vs 9.8%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.48-1.25; P=0.38) and myocardial ischaemia (0.6% [n=2] vs 0% [n=0]; P=0.47) did not differ between groups. Conclusions: An oxygenation strategy using high FIO2 compared with conventional FIO2 did not reduce postoperative SSIs in abdominal surgery. No differences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were found.
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2.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
  • Langefeld, Carl D., et al. (författare)
  • Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with marked gender and ethnic disparities. We report a large transancestral association study of SLE using Immunochip genotype data from 27,574 individuals of European (EA), African (AA) and Hispanic Amerindian (HA) ancestry. We identify 58 distinct non-HLA regions in EA, 9 in AA and 16 in HA (similar to 50% of these regions have multiple independent associations); these include 24 novel SLE regions (P amp;lt; 5 x 10(-8)), refined association signals in established regions, extended associations to additional ancestries, and a disentangled complex HLA multigenic effect. The risk allele count (genetic load) exhibits an accelerating pattern of SLE risk, leading us to posit a cumulative hit hypothesis for autoimmune disease. Comparing results across the three ancestries identifies both ancestry-dependent and ancestry-independent contributions to SLE risk. Our results are consistent with the unique and complex histories of the populations sampled, and collectively help clarify the genetic architecture and ethnic disparities in SLE.
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5.
  • García, Patricia, et al. (författare)
  • Functional and genomic characterization of three novel cell lines derived from a metastatic gallbladder cancer tumor
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological Research. - 0716-9760 .- 0717-6287. ; 53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Author(s). Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common tumor of the biliary tract. The incidence of GBC shows a large geographic variability, being particularly frequent in Native American populations. In Chile, GBC represents the second cause of cancer-related death among women. We describe here the establishment of three novel cell lines derived from the ascitic fluid of a Chilean GBC patient, who presented 46% European, 36% Mapuche, 12% Aymara and 6% African ancestry. Results: After immunocytochemical staining of the primary cell culture, we isolated and comprehensively characterized three independent clones (PUC-GBC1, PUC-GBC2 and PUC-GBC3) by short tandem repeat DNA profiling and RNA sequencing as well as karyotype, doubling time, chemosensitivity, in vitro migration capability and in vivo tumorigenicity assay. Primary culture cells showed high expression of CK7, CK19, CA 19-9, MUC1 and MUC16, and negative expression of mesothelial markers. The three isolated clones displayed an epithelial phenotype and an abnormal structure and number of chromosomes. RNA sequencing confirmed the increased expression of cytokeratin and mucin genes, and also of TP53 and ERBB2 with some differences among the three cells lines, and revealed a novel exonic mutation in NF1. The PUC-GBC3 clone was the most aggressive according to histopathological features and the tumorigenic capacity in NSG mice. Conclusions: The first cell lines established from a Chilean GBC patient represent a new model for studying GBC in patients of Native American descent.
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6.
  • Tiegs, Scott D., et al. (författare)
  • Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - Washington : American Association of Advancement in Science. - 2375-2548. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.
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7.
  • Vilaplana-Pérez, Alba, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Educational Achievement in Sweden.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA network open. - : American Medical Association. - 2574-3805. ; 3:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with impaired educational performance. Previous studies on the disorder could not control for important measured and unmeasured confounders.Objective: To prospectively investigate the association between PTSD and objective indicators of educational attainment across the life span, controlling for familial factors shared by full siblings, psychiatric comorbidity, and general cognitive ability.Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included 2 244 193 individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 1997, who were followed-up until December 31, 2013. Clusters of full siblings were used to account for familial factors. Data analyses were conducted between December 2018 and May 2020.Exposure: International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision diagnoses of PTSD in the Swedish National Patient Register.Main Outcomes and Measures: Eligibility to access upper secondary education after finishing compulsory education, finishing upper secondary education, starting a university degree, and finishing a university degree.Results: Of the final cohort of 2 244 193 individuals (1 151 414 [51.3%] men) included in the analysis, 1 425 326 were assessed for finishing compulsory education (919 with PTSD), 2 001 944 for finishing upper secondary education (2013 with PTSD), and 1 796 407 and 1 356 741 for starting and finishing a university degree (2243 and 2254 with PTSD, respectively). Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with lower odds of achieving each of the educational milestones during the study period, including 82% lower odds of finishing compulsory education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.18; 95% CI, 0.15-0.20), 87% lower odds of finishing upper secondary education (aOR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.12-0.14), 68% lower odds of starting a university degree (aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.28-0.35), and 73% lower odds of finishing a university degree (aOR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.23-0.31). Estimates in the sibling comparison were attenuated (aOR range, 0.22-0.53) but remained statistically significant. Overall, excluding psychiatric comorbidities and adjusting for the successful completion of the previous milestone and general cognitive ability did not statistically significantly alter the magnitude of the associations.Conclusions and Relevance: Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with educational impairment across the life span, and the associations were not entirely explained by shared familial factors, psychiatric comorbidity, or general cognitive ability. This finding highlights the importance of implementing early trauma-informed interventions in schools and universities to minimize the long-term socioeconomic consequences of academic failure in individuals with PTSD.
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8.
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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9.
  • Bernal, Ximena E., et al. (författare)
  • Empowering Latina scientists
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 363:6429, s. 825-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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10.
  • Miao Jonasson, Junmei, et al. (författare)
  • Social Support, Social Network Size, Social Strain, Stressful Life Events, and Coronary Heart Disease in Women With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study Based on the Women's Health Initiative
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes care. - : AMER DIABETES ASSOC. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 43:8, s. 1759-1766
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE We studied associations between social support, social network size, social strain, or stressful life events and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Women's Health Initiative, 5,262 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes at baseline were included. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, depressive symptoms, anthropometric variables, and lifestyle factors were used to examine associations between social factors and CHD. RESULTS A total of 672 case subjects with CHD were observed during an average 12.79 (SD 6.29) years of follow-up. There was a significant linear trend toward higher risk of CHD as the number of stressful life events increased (Pfor trend = 0.01; hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI] for the third and fourth quartiles compared with first quartile: 1.27 [1.03-1.56] and 1.30 [1.04-1.64]). Being married or in an intimate relationship was related to decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.69-0.97]). CONCLUSIONS Among postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of stressful life events were associated with higher risk of CHD. Experience of stressful life events might be considered as a risk factor for CHD among women with type 2 diabetes.
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