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Sökning: WFRF:(Gaser Christian)

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  • Draganski, Bogdan, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 26:23, s. 6314-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current view regarding human long-term memory as an active process of encoding and retrieval includes a highly specific learning-induced functional plasticity in a network of multiple memory systems. Voxel-based morphometry was used to detect possible structural brain changes associated with learning. Magnetic resonance images were obtained at three different time points while medical students learned for their medical examination. During the learning period, the gray matter increased significantly in the posterior and lateral parietal cortex bilaterally. These structural changes did not change significantly toward the third scan during the semester break 3 months after the exam. The posterior hippocampus showed a different pattern over time: the initial increase in gray matter during the learning period was even more pronounced toward the third time point. These results indicate that the acquisition of a great amount of highly abstract information may be related to a particular pattern of structural gray matter changes in particular brain areas.
  • Luders, Eileen, et al. (författare)
  • From baby brain to mommy brain : Widespread gray matter gain after giving birth
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cortex. - : ELSEVIER MASSON, CORP OFF. - 0010-9452 .- 1973-8102. ; 126, s. 334-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pregnancy results in obvious physiological changes to the female body, but data as to what happens to the maternal brain after giving birth are sparse as well as inconsistent. The overall goal of this study is to determine the nature of cerebral change in the postpartum period. For this purpose, we analyzed T1-weighted brain images of 14 healthy women (age range: 25-38 years) at two time points, specifically within 1-2 days of childbirth (immediate postpartum) and at 4-6 weeks after childbirth (late postpartum). When comparing voxel-wise gray matter between these two time points, there was no evidence of any significant decrease. Instead, we detected a pronounced gray matter increase involving both cortical and subcortical regions, such as the pre- and postcentral gyrus, the frontal and central operculum, the inferior frontal gyrus, the precuneus, and the middle occipital gyrus, as well as the thalamus and caudate. These structural changes occurring within only 4-6 weeks after delivery are reflective of a high degree of neuroplasticity and massive adaptations in the maternal brain. They may suggest a restoration of brain tissue following pregnancy and/or a substantial brain reorganization, possibly to accommodate a multifaceted repertoire of complex behaviors associated with being a mother.
  • Luders, Eileen, et al. (författare)
  • Potential Brain Age Reversal after Pregnancy : Younger Brains at 4–6 Weeks Postpartum
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience. - : Elsevier. - 0306-4522 .- 1873-7544. ; 386, s. 309-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pregnancy is accompanied by complex biological adaptations, including extreme hormonal fluctuations. Moreover, changes on the endocrine level are accompanied by changes in cerebral anatomy, such as reductions in brain or gray matter volume. Since declining brain and tissue volumes are characteristic for normal aging, the question arises of whether such pregnancy-induced anatomical effects are permanent or transient. To answer this question, we acquired high-resolution brain image data of 14 healthy women in their mid-twenties to late thirties at two time points: within 1–2 days of childbirth (early postpartum) and at 4–6 weeks after childbirth (late postpartum). At both time points, we estimated the brain ages for each woman using a well-validated machine learning approach based on pattern recognition. Ultimately, this algorithm – designed to identify anatomical correlates of age across the entire brain – reveals a single score for each individual: the BrainAGE index. Comparing the BrainAGE indices between both time points, female brains at late postpartum were estimated to be considerably younger than at early postpartum. On average, that difference was about five years (mean ± SD: 5.4 ± 2.4 years). These findings suggest a substantial restoration/rejuvenation effect after giving birth, which is evident already within the first couple of months.
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