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  • Emtell Iwarsson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Contraceptive use among migrant, second-generation migrant and non-migrant women seeking abortion care : a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ sexual & reproductive health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2515-1991 .- 2515-2009. ; 45:2, s. 118-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to compare ever-in life contraception use, use of contraception at current conception, and planned use of contraception after an induced abortion, among three groups of women: migrants, second-generation migrants and non-migrant women, and to compare the types of contraception methods used and intended for future use among the three groups of women.METHODS: The cross-sectional study administered a questionnaire face-to-face to women aged 18 years and older who were seeking abortion care at one of six abortion clinics in Stockholm County from January to April 2015.RESULTS: The analysis included 637 women. Migrants and second-generation migrants were less likely to have used contraception historically, at the time of the current conception, and to plan to use contraception after their induced abortion compared with non-migrant women. Historically, non-migrants had used pills (89%) and withdrawal (24%) while migrants had used the copper intrauterine device (24%) to a higher extent compared to the other two groups of women. Both the migrants (65%) and second-generation migrants (61%) were more likely than the non-migrants (48%) to be planning to use long-acting reversible contraception.CONCLUSIONS: Lower proportions of contraception use were found in migrants and second-generation migrants than in non-migrants. In addition, there were significant differences in the types of contraception methods used historically and intended for future use.
  • Lundberg, F. E., et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian stimulation and risk of breast cancer in Swedish women
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Fertility and Sterility. - 0015-0282 .- 1556-5653. ; 108:1, s. 137-144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate whether ovarian stimulation for treating infertility is associated with the risk of breast cancer. Patient(s): In a cohort of 1,340,211 women who gave birth 1982-2012, we investigated the relationship between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and incidence of breast cancer. Associations between any ovarian stimulation since 2005 and breast cancer incidence were studied in a separate cohort of 1,877,140 women born 1960-92. Both cohorts were followed through 2012. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer. Result(s): There was no increased risk of breast cancer in women who gave birth after ART compared with women who gave birth after spontaneous conception (adjusted HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95). The incidence of breast cancer was not increased among women who received controlled ovarian stimulation or among women who received other hormonal fertility treatments since 2005, regardless of live birth (adjusted HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.69-1.07; and adjusted HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.05, respectively). Conclusion(s): No increased incidence of breast cancer was found among women who had gone through ovarian stimulations, including ART. These results are consistent with other studies and reassuring given the widespread and increasing use of ART. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
  • Zhou, K., et al. (författare)
  • An overlooked subset of Cx3cr1(wt/wt) microglia in the Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt) mouse has a repopulation advantage over Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt) microglia following microglial depletion
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroinflammation. - : BMC. - 1742-2094. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fluorescent reporter labeling and promoter-driven Cre-recombinant technologies have facilitated cellular investigations of physiological and pathological processes, including the widespread use of the Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt) mouse strain for studies of microglia. Methods Immunohistochemistry, Flow Cytometry, RNA sequencing and whole-genome sequencing were used to identify the subpopulation of microglia in Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt) mouse brains. Genetically mediated microglia depletion using Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt)Rosa26(DTA/wt) mice and CSF1 receptor inhibitor PLX3397 were used to deplete microglia. Primary microglia proliferation and migration assay were used for in vitro studies. Results We unexpectedly identified a subpopulation of microglia devoid of genetic modification, exhibiting higher Cx3cr1 and CX3CR1 expression than Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt)Cre(+)Eyfp(+) microglia in Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt) mouse brains, thus termed Cx3cr1(high)Cre(-)Eyfp(-) microglia. This subpopulation constituted less than 1% of all microglia under homeostatic conditions, but after Cre-driven DTA-mediated microglial depletion, Cx3cr1(high)Cre(-)Eyfp(-) microglia escaped depletion and proliferated extensively, eventually occupying one-third of the total microglial pool. We further demonstrated that the Cx3cr1(high)Cre(-)Eyfp(-) microglia had lost their genetic heterozygosity and become homozygous for wild-type Cx3cr1. Therefore, Cx3cr1(high)Cre(-)Eyfp(-) microglia are Cx3cr1(wt/wt)Cre(-)Eyfp(-). Finally, we demonstrated that CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling regulates microglial repopulation both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions Our results raise a cautionary note regarding the use of Cx3cr1(CreER-Eyfp/wt) mouse strains, particularly when interpreting the results of fate mapping, and microglial depletion and repopulation studies.
  • Bengtsdotter, H., et al. (författare)
  • Ongoing or previous mental disorders predispose to adverse mood reporting during combined oral contraceptive use
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1362-5187 .- 1473-0782. ; 23:1, s. 45-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Previous studies have emphasised that women with pre-existing mood disorders are more inclined to discontinue hormonal contraceptive use. However, few studies have examined the effects of combined oral contraceptives (COC) on mood in women with previous or ongoing mental disorders. Materials and methods: This is a supplementary analysis of an investigator-initiated, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial during which 202 women were treated with either a COC (1.5mg estradiol and 2.5mg nomegestrolacetate) or placebo during three treatment cycles. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to collect information on previous or ongoing mental disorders. The primary outcome measure was the total change score in five mood symptoms on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) scale in the intermenstrual phase of the treatment cycle. Results: Women with ongoing or previous mood, anxiety or eating disorders allocated to COC had higher total DRSP -scores during the intermenstrual phase of the treatment cycle in comparison with corresponding women randomised to placebo, mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 0.3-2.3). In contrast, among women without mental health problems, no difference in total DRSP -scores between COC- and placebo users was noted. Women with a risk use of alcohol who were randomised to the COC had higher total DRSP -scores than women randomised to placebo, mean difference 2.1 (CI 95% 1.0-3.2). Conclusions: Women with ongoing or previous mental disorders or risk use of alcohol have greater risk of COC-induced mood symptoms. This may be worth noting during family planning and contraceptive counselling.
  • Hognert, Helena, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Immediate versus delayed insertion of an etonogestrel releasing implant at medical abortion-a randomized controlled equivalence trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - 0268-1161. ; 31:11, s. 2484-2490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Does a progestin releasing subdermal contraceptive implant affect the efficacy of medical abortion if inserted at the same visit as the progesterone receptor modulator, mifepristone, at medical abortion? A etonogestrel releasing subdermal implant inserted on the day of mifepristone did not impair the efficacy of the medical abortion compared with routine insertion at 2-4 weeks after the abortion. The etonogestrel releasing subdermal implant is one of the most effective long acting reversible contraceptive methods. The effect of timing of placement on the efficacy of mifepristone and impact on prevention of subsequent unintended pregnancy is not known. This multicentre, randomized controlled, equivalence trial with recruitment between 13 October 2013 and 17 October 2015 included a total of 551 women with pregnancies below 64 days gestation opting for the etonogestrel releasing subdermal implant as postabortion contraception. Women were randomized to either insertion at 1 hour after mifepristone intake (immediate) or at follow-up 2-4 weeks later (delayed insertion). An equivalence design was used due to advantages for women such as fewer visits to the clinic with immediate insertion. The primary outcome was the percentage of women with complete abortion not requiring surgical intervention within 1 month. Secondary outcomes included insertion rates, pregnancy and repeat abortion rates during 6 months follow-up. Analysis was per protocol and by intention to treat. Women aged 18 years and older who had requested medical termination of a pregnancy up to 63 days of gestation and opted for an etonogestrel releasing contraceptive implant were recruited in outpatient family planning clinics in six hospitals in Sweden and Scotland. Efficacy of medical abortion was 259/275 (94.2%) in the immediate insertion group and 239/249 (96%) in the routine insertion group with a risk difference of 1.8% (95% CI -0.4 to 4.1%), which was within the +/- 5% margin of equivalence. The insertion rate was 275/277 (98.9%) in the immediate group compared to 187/261 (71.6%) women in the routine group (P < 0.001). At 6 months of follow-up significantly fewer women in the immediate group had become pregnant again (2/277, 0.8%) compared to the routine group (10/261, 3.8%) P = 0.018. For the main outcome loss to follow-up data was minimized through access to patient records. Efforts were made to reduce loss to follow-up also for secondary outcomes. The results of the sensitivity analysis did not differ from the intention to treat or per protocol analysis. Guidelines on postabortion contraception should be amended to include insertion of the etonogestrel releasing implant at the time of mifepristone intake for medical abortion up to and including a gestation of 63 days. This study was funded by the Swedish Research Council (2012-2844), Stockholm City County and Karolinska Institutet (ALF). The contraceptive implants were provided by Merck and supplied by MSD Sweden. HKK and KGD have received honorariums for giving lectures for MSD/Merck and have participated in the national (HKK and KGD) and international (KGD) medical advisory boards for MSD/Merck. The other authors have nothing to declare.
  • Lundin, C., et al. (författare)
  • Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with both improvement and worsening of mood in the different phases of the treatment cycle-A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 76, s. 135-143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Ever since the introduction of combined oral contraception (COC), one of the major reasons for discontinuing the pill use has been mood-related side effects. Moreover, women who discontinue the pill turn to less effective methods whereby the probability of an unintended conception increases. Approximately 4-10% of COC users complain of depressed mood, irritability or increased anxiety, but drug-related causality has been difficult to prove. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials in this area, we aimed to prospectively estimate the severity of adverse mood in COC users that would be as representative of general users as possible. Methods: This investigator-initiated, multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study included 202 healthy women. Women were randomized to a COC (1.5 mg estradiol and 2.5 mg nomegestrolacetate) or placebo for three treatment cycles. Main outcome measure was the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP), which was filled out daily during one baseline cycle and the final treatment cycle. Results: Results from 84 women in the COC group and 94 women in the placebo group were analysed. COC use was associated with small, but statistically significant, increases in mean anxiety (0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.37, p = 0.003), irritability (0.23; 95% CI: 0.07-0.38, p = 0.012), and mood swings scores (0.15; 95% CI: 0.00-0.31, p = 0.047) during the intermenstrual phase, but a significant premenstrual improvement in depression (-0.33; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.05, p = 0.049). Secondary analyses showed that women with previous adverse hormonal contraceptive experience reported significantly greater mood worsening in the intermenstrual phase in comparison with healthy women, p <0.05. The proportion of women who reported a clinically relevant mood deterioration did not differ between those allocated to COC (24.1%) or placebo (17.0%), p = 0.262. Conclusion: COC use is associated with small but statistically significant mood side effects in the inter menstrual phase. These findings are driven by a subgroup of women who clearly suffer from COC-related side effects. However, positive mood effects are noted in the premenstrual phase and the proportion of women with clinically relevant mood worsening did not differ between treatment groups. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wånggren, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of muscular contractions in the human Fallopian tube through prostaglandins and progestagens
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - 0268-1161 .- 1460-2350. ; 23:10, s. 2359-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Transport of gametes and embryos is an important function of the Fallopian tube. Both muscular contractions and cilia activity are involved in the transportation. Prostaglandins (PGs) are known mediators of muscular contractility. PG receptors have previously been demonstrated in the human Fallopian tube. The aim was to study the effect of PGs and progestagens, antiprogestin, hCG and oxytocin on muscular contractions in the human Fallopian tube, and the hormonal regulation of PG receptors. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy women operated for benign causes were included in the study. The ampullary-isthmic junction of the Fallopian tubes was excised and used for in vitro contractility studies. The effect of PGE(1), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), progesterone, mifepristone, levonorgestrel, oxytocin and hCG on contractility was studied. Explants of Fallopian tubes were cultured for 24 h to study the effect of progestagens and hCG on the expression of PG receptors using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. RESULTS: Muscular contractions increased after treatment with PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) (P < 0.05). The contractions decreased after PGE(1), progesterone, levonorgestrel, mifepristone, oxytocin and hCG (P < 0.05). In tubal explant studies, relative mRNA expression of EP1, EP2, EP3 and FP increased after levonorgestrel treatment (P < 0.05). Mifepristone and levonorgestrel treatment increased immunostaining intensity of EP1 and EP2 protein, in lumen, muscle and vessels. Progesterone and mifepristone increased immunostaining of FP in vessels. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the transport of gametes and embryos involves the action of PGs, progesterone, oxytocin and hCG on muscular contractility.
  • Berger, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular characterization of PRM-associated endometrial changes, PAEC, following mifepristone treatment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Contraception. - : Elsevier. - 0010-7824 .- 1879-0518. ; 98:4, s. 317-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The progesterone receptor modulator (PRM) mifepristone holds the potential to be developed for regular contraception. However, long-term treatment can cause thickening of the endometrium and PRM-associated endometrial changes (PAEC). The objective of this study was to explore the molecular expression of endometrium displaying PAEC after mifepristone treatment in order to understand the future implications of PAEC and safety of long-term use. Study design: Endometrial biopsies were obtained from premenopausal women following 3 months of continuous mifepristone treatment. The biopsies were evaluated regarding occurrence of PAEC and followed up by a comparative analysis of gene expression in PAEC endometrium (n=7) with endometrium not displaying PAEC (n=4). Methods used included microarray analysis, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Three genes relevant within endometrial function were up-regulated with PAEC: THY1 (p=.02), ADAM12 (p=.04) and TN-C (p=.04). The proliferation marker MKi67 was not altered (p=.31). None of the differentially regulated genes were involved in the endometrial cancer-signaling pathway (based on IPA knowledge database). Conclusion: The genes altered in endometrium displaying PAEC after 3 months of mifepristone exposure are mainly involved in the structural architecture of tissue. Implications: PAEC features may be explained by the altered genes and their networks affecting tissue architecture although not involved in endometrial cancer signaling pathways, and thus, treatment with mifepristone at this dosage does not show any adverse effect at endometrial level.
  • Bizjak, I., et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of very early medical termination of pregnancy: a cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. - 1470-0328 .- 1471-0528. ; 124:13, s. 1993-1999
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) when no intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) is confirmed on ultrasound. Design: Retrospective case-note review. Setting: Two gynaecological clinics in Vienna, Austria, and Gothenburg, Sweden. Population: All women with gestations of ≤49 days undergoing an MTOP during 2004–14 (Vienna) and 2012–15 (Gothenburg). Methods: Two study cohorts were created: women with and women without a confirmed IUP. An IUP was defined as the intrauterine location of a yolk sac or fetal structure visible by ultrasound. Women with an IUP were selected randomly and included in the IUP cohort. Main outcome measures: Efficacy of MTOP, defined as no continuing pregnancy and with no need of surgery for incomplete TOP. Results: After excluding 11 women diagnosed with an extra-uterine or molar pregnancy, 2643 cases were included in the final analysis; 1120 (98.2%) had a successful TOP in the no-IUP group, compared with 1458 (97.1%) in the IUP group, with a risk difference of 1.09% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, −0.14, 2.32%; P = 0.077). Significantly more women with confirmed IUP were diagnosed with incomplete TOP, and were treated with either surgery or additional medical treatment of misoprostol [64 (4.3%) versus 21 (1.8%); risk difference −2.42%; 95% CI −3.9, −1.1%; P  <  0.001]. Conclusions: There was no difference between the groups in efficacy of MTOP, whereas early treatment resulted in significantly fewer interventions for incomplete TOP. The risk of ectopic pregnancy needs to be considered if treatment is initiated before an IUP is confirmed, but with structured clinical protocols the possibility of the early detection of an ectopic pregnancy in an asymptomatic phase may increase. Tweetable abstract: MTOP before confirmed intrauterine pregnancy is as effective as at later gestation with less incomplete TOP.
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