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Sökning: WFRF:(Gerdts Eva)

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  • Rieck, Åshild E., et al. (författare)
  • Hypertension in aortic stenosis implications for left ventricular structure and cardiovascular events
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - : American Heart Association. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 60:1, s. 90-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of hypertension on left ventricular structure and outcome during progression of aortic valve stenosis has not been reported from a large prospective study. Data from 1616 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis randomized to placebo-controlled treatment with combined simvastatin and ezetimibe in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study were used. The primary study end point included combined cardiovascular death, aortic valve events, and ischemic cardiovascular events. Hypertension was defined as history of hypertension or elevated baseline blood pressure. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass/height2 7 >46.7 g/m2.7 in women and >49.2 g/m2.7 in men and concentric geometry as relative wall thickness >043. Baseline peak aortic jet velocity and aortic stenosis progression rate did not differ between hypertensive (n= 1340) and normotensive (n=276) patients. During 4.3 years of follow-up, the prevalence of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy increased 3 times in both groups. Hypertension predicted 51% higher incidence of abnormal LV geometry at final study visit independent of other confounders (P<0.01). In time-varying Cox regression, hypertension did not predict increased rate of the primary study end point. However, hypertension was associated with a 56% higher rate of ischemic cardiovascular events and a 2-fold increased mortality (both P<0.01), independent of aortic stenosis severity, abnormal left ventricular geometry, in-treatment systolic blood pressure, and randomized study treatment. No impact on aortic valve replacement was found. In conclusion, among patients with initial asymptomatic mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis, hypertension was associated with more abnormal left ventricular structure and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 
  • Bang, Casper N., et al. (författare)
  • Four-Group Classification of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Based on Ventricular Concentricity and Dilatation Identifies a Low-Risk Subset of Eccentric Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging. - 1941-9651 .- 1942-0080. ; 7:3, s. 422-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; high LV mass [LVM]) is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on LV relative wall thickness. We evaluated the prediction of subsequent adverse events in a new 4-group LVH classification based on LV dilatation (high LV end-diastolic volume [EDV] index) and concentricity (mass/end-diastolic volume [M/EDV](2/3)) in hypertensive patients. Methods and Results-In the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction (LIFE) echocardiography substudy, 939 hypertensive patients with measurable LVM at baseline were randomized to a mean of 4.8 years of losartan- or atenolol-based treatment. Patients with LVH (LVM/body surface area >= 116 and >= 96 g/m(2) in men and woman, respectively) were divided into 4 groups-concentric nondilated (increased M/EDV, normal EDV), eccentric dilated (increased EDV, normal M/EDV), concentric dilated (increased M/EDV and EDV), and eccentric nondilated (normal M/EDV and EDV)-and compared with patients with normal LVM. Time-varying LVH classes were tested for association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and a composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and cardiovascular death in multivariable Cox analyses. At baseline, the LVs were categorized as eccentric nondilated in 12%, eccentric dilated in 20%, concentric nondilated in 29%, concentric dilated in 14%, and normal LVM in 25%. Treatment changed the prevalence of 4 LVH groups to 23%, 4%, 5%, and 7%; 62% had normal LVM after 4 years. In time-varying Cox analyses, compared with normal LVM, those with eccentric dilated and both concentric nondilated and dilated LVH had increased risks of all-cause or cardiovascular mortality or the composite end point, whereas the eccentric nondilated group did not. Conclusions-Hypertensive patients with relatively mild LVH without either increased LV volume or concentricity have similar risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events because hypertensive patients with normal LVM seem to be a low-risk group.
  • Bang, Casper N., et al. (författare)
  • Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients : the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 31:10, s. 2060-2068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV(2/3))] in hypertensive patients.Methods and results:Nine hundred thirty-nine participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy had measurable LVM at enrolment. Patients with LVH (LVM/body surface area 116g/m(2) in men and 96g/m(2) in women) were divided into four groups; eccentric nondilated' (normal LVM/EDV and EDV), eccentric dilated' (increased EDV, normal LVM/EDV), concentric nondilated' (increased LVM/EDV with normal EDV), and concentric dilated' (increased LVM/EDV and EDV) and compared to patients with normal LVM. At baseline, 12% had eccentric nondilated, 20% eccentric dilated, 29% concentric nondilated, and 14% concentric dilated LVH, with normal LVM in 25%. Compared with the concentric nondilated LVH group, those with concentric dilated LVH had significantly lower pulse pressure/stroke index and ejection fraction; higher LVM index, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular midwall shortening, left atrial volume and isovolumic relaxation time; and more had segmental wall motion abnormalities (all P<0.05). Similar differences existed between patients with eccentric dilated and those with eccentric nondilated LVH (all P<0.05). Compared with patients with normal LVM, the eccentric nondilated had higher LV stroke volume, pulse pressure/stroke index, Cornell voltage product and SBP, and lower heart rate and fewer were African-American (all P<0.05).Conclusion:The new four-group classification of LVH identifies dilated subgroups with reduced left ventricular function among patients currently classified with eccentric or concentric LVH.
  • Boman, Kurt, et al. (författare)
  • Exercise and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients in relation to structure and function of left ventricular hypertrophy : the LIFE study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. - 1741-8267 .- 1741-8275. ; 16:2, s. 242-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Exercise lowers blood pressure and improves cardiovascular function, but little is known about whether exercise impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and LV geometry. DESIGN: Observational analysis of prospectively obtained echocardiographic data within the context of a randomized trial of antihypertensive treatment. METHODS: A total of 937 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH were studied by echocardiography in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Baseline exercise status was categorized as sedentary (never exercise), intermediate (30 min twice/week). During 4.8-year follow-up, 105 patients suffered the primary composite endpoint of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cardiovascular death. MI occurred in 39, stroke in 60, and cardiovascular death in 33 patients. RESULTS: Sedentary individuals (n = 212) had, compared with those physically active (n = 511), higher heart rate (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), body surface area (P = 0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), LV mass (LVM, P = 0.04), LVM indexed for height or body surface area (P = 0.004); thicker ventricular septum (P = 0.012) and posterior wall (P = 0.016); and larger left atrium (P = 0.006). Systolic variables did not differ. In Cox regression analysis, physically active compared with sedentary patients had lower risk of primary composite endpoint [odds ratio (OR): 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.68, P < 0.001], cardiovascular death (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.22-0.1.10, NS), and stroke (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.13-0.49, P < 0.001) without significant difference for MI (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.35-1.75, NS) independent of systolic blood pressure, LVM index, or treatment. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients with LVH, physically active patients had improved prognosis for cardiovascular endpoints, mortality, and stroke that was independent of LVM.
  • Chinali, Marcello, et al. (författare)
  • Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy : the LIFE study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 26:7, s. 1472-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297 patients (52.3%), who were older and had higher body mass index and heart rate (all P < 0.01) but similar systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in comparison with patients with normal left atrial systolic force. After controlling for confounders, increased left atrial systolic force was associated with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P < 0.01). Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P < 0.001). Participants with increased left atrial systolic force exhibited normal ejection fraction; higher stroke volume, cardiac output, transmitral peak E velocities and peak A velocities; and lower E/A ratio (all P < 0.01). Enhanced left atrial systolic force identifies hypertensive patients with greater left ventricular mass and prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, but normal left ventricular chamber systolic function with increased transmitral flow gradient occurring during early filling, consistent with increased preload.
  • Cicala, Silvana, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical impact of 'in-treatment' wall motion abnormalities in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy : the LIFE study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 26:4, s. 806-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular systolic wall motion abnormalities have prognostic value. Whether wall motion detected by serial echocardiographic examinations predicts prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) without clinically recognized atherosclerotic disease has, however, never been investigated. We examined whether 'in-treatment' wall motion abnormalities predicted outcome in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint (LIFE) reduction in hypertension echocardiographic substudy.METHODS: We studied 749 patients without coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke history. Echocardiographic segmental wall motion abnormalities at baseline and annual re-evaluations ('as time-varying covariate') were examined in relation to endpoints (cardiovascular mortality, MI, stroke, and hospitalized heart failure). Adjusted Cox regression was used to analyze the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke and, separately, for fatal and nonfatal MI and hospitalized heart failure.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, an event was recorded in 67 (9%) patients. In Cox models after adjusting for age, gender, treatment, blood pressure lowering, and serial change of left ventricular mass index, 'in-treatment' segmental wall motion abnormalities were associated with subsequent composite endpoint [hazard ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.8; P = 0.019] and MI [hazard ratio = 3.7 (1.5-8.9); P = 0.004].CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients with LVH and no history of cardiovascular disease, 'in-treatment' left ventricular wall motion abnormalities are associated with increased likelihood of subsequent cardiovascular events independent of age, gender, blood pressure lowering, treatment modality, and in-treatment left ventricular mass index.
  • Cramariuc, Dana, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in cardiovascular outcome during progression of aortic valve stenosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 101:3, s. 209-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Women with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) have better LV systolic function and more concentric LV geometry than their male counterparts. However, sex differences in cardiovascular (CV) outcome during progression of AS have not been reported from a longitudinal prospective study.METHODS: Doppler echocardiography and CV events were recorded during a median of 4.0 years in 979 men and 632 women aged 28-86 (mean 67±10) years in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. LV systolic function was assessed by EF and midwall shortening (MWS). Study outcomes were AS-related events, ischaemic CV events and total mortality.RESULTS: The annular cumulative incidence of AS events, ischaemic CV events and death was 8.1%, 3.4% and 2.8% in women, and 8.9%, 4.4% and 2.4% in men, respectively. Women and men had similar AS progression rate whether measured by peak jet velocity, mean gradient or valve area. In multivariate analyses, female sex independently predicted less reduction in LV MWS and EF during follow-up (both p<0.05). In time-varying Cox analyses, women had a 40% lower rate of ischaemic CV events (95% CI 21% to 54%), in particular, more than 50% lower rate of stroke and coronary artery bypass grafting, and a 31% lower all-cause mortality (95% CI 1% to 51%), independent of active study treatment, age and hypertension, as well as time-varying valve area, low systolic function and abnormal LV geometry. AS event rate did not differ by sex.CONCLUSIONS: In the SEAS study, women and men had similar rates of AS progression and AS-related events. However, women had lower total mortality and ischaemic CV event rate than men independent of confounders.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00092677.
  • De Marco, Marina, et al. (författare)
  • Mitral annular calcification and incident ischemic stroke in treated hypertensive patients : the LIFE study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Hypertension. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0895-7061 .- 1941-7225. ; 26:4, s. 567-573
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Fibro-calcification of the mitral annulus (MAC) has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in general populations. This study was performed to assess whether MAC predicts incidence of ischemic stroke in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).METHODS Baseline and follow-up clinical and echocardiographic parameters were assessed in 939 hypertensive patients with electrocardiogram (ECG) LVH participating in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy (66 +/- 7 years; 42% women; 11% with diabetes) who did not have aortic or mitral valve stenosis or prosthesis.RESULTS MAC was found in 458 patients (49%). Patients with MAC were older (68 +/- 7 vs. 65 +/- 7 years); were more often women (47% vs. 37%); had higher baseline systolic blood pressure (BP) (175 +/- 14 vs. 172 +/- 15 mm Hg), left atrial diameter (4.0 +/- 0.5 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.6 cm), and left ventricular mass index (58 +/- 13 vs. 55 +/- 12 g/m(2.7)) and included more patients with proteinuria (30% vs. 21%; all P < 0.01). During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 58 participants had an ischemic stroke. Risk of incident ischemic stroke was significantly related to presence of MAC (log rank = 9; P < 0.01). In multivariable Cox regression analysis models, MAC was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio = 1.78-2.35), independent of age, baseline or time-varying systolic BR prevalence or incidence of atrial fibrillation, history of previous cerebrovascular disease, and other well-recognized confounders, such as sex, time-varying left ventricular mass, left atrial diameter, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (all P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS MAC is common in treated hypertensive patients with ECG LVH and is an independent predictor of incident ischemic stroke.
  • Devereux, Richard B., et al. (författare)
  • Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients LIFE Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 66:5, s. 945-953
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference in myocardial infarction (MI), possibly related to greater reduction in myocardial oxygen demand by atenolol-based treatment. Myocardial oxygen demand was assessed indirectly by the left ventricular massxwall stressxheart rate (triple product) in 905 LIFE participants. The triple product was included as time-varying covariate in Cox models assessing predictors of the LIFE primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke), its individual components, and all-cause mortality. At baseline, the triple product in both treatment groups was, compared with normal adults, elevated in 70% of patients. During randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass more, greater heart rate reduction with atenolol resulted in larger reduction of the triple product. Lower triple product during antihypertensive treatment was strongly, independently associated with lower rates of the LIFE primary composite end point, cardiovascular death, and MI, but not stroke.
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