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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Gilbert DL) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Gilbert DL)

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  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Gene-Centric Meta-Analysis across 39 Studies Identifies Type 2 Diabetes Loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 90:3, s. 410-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom similar to 50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with similar to 2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 x 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 x 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 x 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 x 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 x 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups.
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  • Bena, Frederique, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular and clinical characterization of 25 individuals with exonic deletions of NRXN1 and comprehensive review of the literature
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B. - 1552-4841 .- 1552-485X. ; 162B:4, s. 388-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to elucidate the observed variable phenotypic expressivity associated with NRXN1 (Neurexin 1) haploinsufficiency by analyses of the largest cohort of patients with NRXN1 exonic deletions described to date and by comprehensively reviewing all comparable copy number variants in all disease cohorts that have been published in the peer reviewed literature (30 separate papers in all). Assessment of the clinical details in 25 previously undescribed individuals with NRXN1 exonic deletions demonstrated recurrent phenotypic features consisting of moderate to severe intellectual disability (91%), severe language delay (81%), autism spectrum disorder (65%), seizures (43%), and hypotonia (38%). These showed considerable overlap with previously reported NRXN1-deletion associated phenotypes in terms of both spectrum and frequency. However, we did not find evidence for an association between deletions involving the -isoform of neurexin-1 and increased head size, as was recently published in four cases with a deletion involving the C-terminus of NRXN1. We identified additional rare copy number variants in 20% of cases. This study supports a pathogenic role for heterozygous exonic deletions of NRXN1 in neurodevelopmental disorders. The additional rare copy number variants identified may act as possible phenotypic modifiers as suggested in a recent digenic model of neurodevelopmental disorders. 
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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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  • van Rossum, Ineke A, et al. (författare)
  • Injury markers predict time to dementia in subjects with MCI and amyloid pathology.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 79:17, s. 1809-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer disease (AD) can now be diagnosed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using biomarkers. However, little is known about the rate of decline in those subjects. In this cohort study, we aimed to assess the conversion rate to dementia and identify prognostic markers in subjects with MCI and evidence of amyloid pathology.
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