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Sökning: WFRF:(Gingnell Malin)

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1.
  • Costache, Mădălina Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PLOS. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.
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2.
  • Engman, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal Cycle and Contraceptive Effects on Amygdala and Salience Resting-State Networks in Women with Previous Affective Side Effects on the Pill.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0893-133X .- 1740-634X. ; 43:3, s. 555-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanisms linking ovarian hormones to negative affect are poorly characterized, but important clues may come from the examination of the brain's intrinsic organization. Here, we studied the effects of both the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives (OCs) on amygdala and salience network resting-state functional connectivity using a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled design. Hormone levels, depressive symptoms, and resting-state functional connectivity were measured in 35 healthy women (24.9±4.2 years) who had previously experienced OC-related negative affect. All participants were examined in the follicular phase of a baseline cycle and in the third week of the subsequent cycle during treatment with either a combined OC (30 μg ethinyl estradiol/0.15 mg levonorgestrel) or placebo. The latter time point targeted the midluteal phase in placebo users and steady-state ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel concentrations in OC users. Amygdala and salience network connectivity generally increased with both higher endogenous and synthetic hormone levels, although amygdala-parietal cortical connectivity decreased in OC users. When in the luteal phase, the naturally cycling placebo users demonstrated higher connectivity in both networks compared with the women receiving OCs. Our results support a causal link between the exogenous administration of synthetic hormones and amygdala and salience network connectivity. Furthermore, they suggest a similar, potentially stronger, association between the natural hormonal variations across the menstrual cycle and intrinsic network connectivity.
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3.
  • Faria, Vanda, et al. (författare)
  • Do You Believe It? Verbal Suggestions Influence the Clinical and Neural Effects of Escitalopram in Social Anxiety Disorder : A Randomized Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 2352-3964. ; 24, s. 179-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for depression and anxiety, but their efficacy relative to placebo has been questioned. We aimed to test how manipulation of verbally induced expectancies, central for placebo, influences SSRI treatment outcome and brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD).Methods: We did a randomized clinical trial, within an academic medical center (Uppsala, Sweden), of individuals fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, recruited through media advertising. Participants were 18 years or older and randomized in blocks, through a computer-generated sequence by an independent party, to nine weeks of overt or covert treatment with escitalopram(20 mg daily). The overt group received correct treatment information whereas the covert group was treated deceptively with the SSRI described, by the psychiatrist, as active placebo. The treating psychiatrist was necessarily unmasked while the research staff was masked from intervention assignment. Treatment efficacy was assessed primarily with the self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR), administered at week 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9, also yielding a dichotomous estimate of responder status (clinically significant improvement). Before and at the last week of treatment, brain activity during an emotional face-matching task was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and during fMRI sessions, anticipatory speech anxiety was also assessed with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State version (STAI-S). Analyses included all randomized patients with outcome data at posttreatment. This study is registered at ISRCTN, number 98890605.Findings: Between March 17th 2014 and May 22nd 2015, 47 patients were recruited. One patient in the covert group dropped out after a few days of treatment and did not provide fMRI data, leaving 46 patients with complete outcome data. After nine weeks of treatment, overt (n = 24) as compared to covert (n = 22) SSRI administration yielded significantly better outcome on the LSAS-SR (adjusted difference 21.17, 95% CI 10.69–31.65, p < 0.0001) with more than three times higher response rate (50% vs. 14%; χ2(1) = 6.91, p = 0.009) and twice the effect size (d = 2.24 vs. d = 1.13) from pre-to posttreatment. There was no significant between-group difference on anticipatory speech anxiety (STAI-S), both groups improving with treatment. No serious adverse reactions were recorded. On fMRI outcomes, there was suggestive evidence for a differential neural response to treatment between groups in the posterior cingulate, superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri (all z thresholds exceeding 3.68, p ≤ 0.001). Reduced social anxiety with treatment correlated significantly with enhanced posterior cingulate (z threshold 3.24, p = 0.0006) and attenuated amygdala (z threshold 2.70, p = 0.003) activity.Interpretation: The clinical and neural effects of escitalopram were markedly influenced by verbal suggestions. This points to a pronounced placebo component in SSRI-treatment of SAD and favors a biopsychosocial over a biomedical explanatory model for SSRI efficacy.
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4.
  • Frick, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex activity as a candidate biomarker for treatment selection in social anxiety disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BJPsych Open. - : Cambridges Institutes Press. - 2056-4724. ; 4:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to identify biomarkers to guide the decision to add selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Forty-eight patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and collection of clinical and demographic variables before treatment with cognitive-behavioural therapy, combined on a double-blind basis with either escitalopram or placebo for 9 weeks. Pre-treatment neural reactivity to aversive faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but not clinical/demographic variables, moderated clinical outcomes. Cross-validated individual-level predictions accurately identified 81% of responders/non-responders. Dorsal ACC reactivity is thus a potential bio-marker for SAD treatment selection.
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5.
  • Frick, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Classifying social anxiety disorder using multivoxel pattern analyses of brain function and structure
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Behavioural Brain Research. - 0166-4328 .- 1872-7549. ; 259, s. 330-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Functional neuroimaging of social anxiety disorder (SAD) support altered neural activation to threat-provoking stimuli focally in the fear network, while structural differences are distributed over the temporal and frontal cortices as well as limbic structures. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated the brain at the voxel level using mass-univariate methods which do not enable detection of more complex patterns of activity and structural alterations that may separate SAD from healthy individuals. Support vector machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning method that capitalizes on brain activation and structural patterns to classify individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate if it is possible to discriminate SAD patients (n = 14) from healthy controls (n = 12) using SVM based on (1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during fearful face processing and (2) regional gray matter volume. Whole brain and region of interest (fear network) SVM analyses were performed for both modalities. For functional scans, significant classifications were obtained both at whole brain level and when restricting the analysis to the fear network while gray matter SVM analyses correctly classified participants only when using the whole brain search volume. These results support that SAD is characterized by aberrant neural activation to affective stimuli in the fear network, while disorder-related alterations in regional gray matter volume are more diffusely distributed over the whole brain. SVM may thus be useful for identifying imaging biomarkers of SAD.
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6.
  • Frick, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Enlargement of visual processing regions in social anxiety disorder is related to symptom severity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 583, s. 114-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with altered brain function and structure, but most structural studies include small samples and findings are mixed. This study compared regional gray matter volume between 48 SAD patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) as well as the relationship between volume and symptom severity. Structural magnetic resonance images from SAD patients and HC were evaluated using standard voxel-based morphometry (VBM) processing in the SPM8 software package. Social anxiety symptom severity was rated in SAD patients by a clinician using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). SAD patients had greater regional gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus and lateral occipital cortex than the controls, and within the SAD group a positive correlation was found between symptom severity and regional gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus and the retrosplenial cortex. These findings replicate and extend earlier reports of enlarged visual processing areas in SAD. Increased gray matter volume in regions involved in visual processing and self-consciousness could underlie, or be the result of, abnormal emotional information processing and self-focused attention previously demonstrated in patients with SAD.
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7.
  • Frick, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroimaging, genetic, clinical, and demographic predictors of treatment response in patients with social anxiety disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 261, s. 230-237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Correct prediction of treatment response is a central goal of precision psychiatry. Here, we tested the predictive accuracy of a variety of pre-treatment patient characteristics, including clinical, demographic, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging markers, for treatment response in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-seven SAD patients (mean±SD age 33.9 ± 9.4 years, 24 women) were randomized and commenced 9 weeks’ Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) combined either with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram (20 mg daily [10 mg first week], SSRI+CBT, n = 24) or placebo (placebo+CBT, n = 23). Treatment responders were defined from the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I ≤ 2). Before treatment, patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and the Multi-Source Interference Task taxing cognitive interference. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained to separate responders from nonresponders based on pre-treatment neural reactivity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), amygdala, and occipital cortex, as well as molecular genetic, demographic, and clinical data. SVM models were tested using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. Results: The best model separated treatment responders (n = 24) from nonresponders based on pre-treatment dACC reactivity (83% accuracy, P = 0.001). Responders had greater pre-treatment dACC reactivity than nonresponders especially in the SSRI+CBT group. No other variable was associated with clinical response or added predictive accuracy to the dACC SVM model. Limitations: Small sample size, especially for genetic analyses. No replication or validation samples were available. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that treatment outcome predictions based on neural cingulate activity, at the individual level, outperform genetic, demographic, and clinical variables for medication-assisted Internet-delivered CBT, supporting the use of neuroimaging in precision psychiatry.
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8.
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9.
  • Gingnell, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Combining escitalopram and cognitive–behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder : randomised controlled fMRI trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - : ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRISTS. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 209:3, s. 229-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) are often used concomitantly to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined the effect of this combination.AimsTo evaluate whether adding escitalopram to internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) improves clinical outcome and alters brain reactivity and connectivity in SAD.MethodDouble-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled neuroimaging trial of ICBT combined either with escitalopram (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24), including a 15-month clinical follow-up (trial registration: ISRCTN24929928).ResultsEscitalopram+ICBT, relative to placebo+ICBT, resulted in significantly more clinical responders, larger reductions in anticipatory speech state anxiety at post-treatment and larger reductions in social anxiety symptom severity at 15-month follow-up and at a trend-level (P = 0.09) at post-treatment. Right amygdala reactivity to emotional faces also decreased more in the escitalopram+ICBT combination relative to placebo+ICBT, and in treatment responders relative to non-responders.ConclusionsAdding escitalopram improves the outcome of ICBT for SAD and decreased amygdala reactivity is important for anxiolytic treatment response.
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10.
  • Gingnell, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroticism-related personality traits are related to symptom severity in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and to the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism 5-HTTPLPR
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Archives of Women's Mental Health. - 1434-1816 .- 1435-1102. ; 13:5, s. 417-423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroticism has been linked to a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), with short-allele carriers being overrepresented among high-scorers on neuroticism. Studies evaluating neuroticism-related personality traits in relation to the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PMDD and neuroticism-related personality traits, and secondly, to relate the personality trait scores of PMDD patients to experienced symptom severity and to the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Thirty PMDD patients and 55 asymptomatic healthy controls were included in the study. The Swedish Universities Scale of Personality was used to evaluate personality traits. Genotype analyses were available in 27 PMDD patients and 18 healthy controls. Women with PMDD displayed higher levels of neuroticism-related personality traits (psychic trait anxiety, somatic trait anxiety, embitterment, stress susceptibility and mistrust) than healthy controls, and these effects were most prominent in women with more severe luteal phase symptoms. Furthermore, PMDD patients with at least one copy of the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism scored higher on psychic trait anxiety and lack of assertiveness than PMDD patients who were homozygous for the long allele. PMDD patients who suffer from more severe luteal phase symptoms also display increased scores of neuroticism-related personality traits in comparison with healthy controls. Within the group of PMDD patients, differences in certain personality trait scores are associated with the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.
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