1. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results V. CMB power spectra and likelihoods
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We describe the legacy Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihoods derived from the 2018 data release. The overall approach is similar in spirit to the one retained for the 2013 and 2015 data release, with a hybrid method using different approximations at low (l< 30) and high (l >= 30) multipoles, implementing several methodological and dataanalysis refinements compared to previous releases. With more realistic simulations, and better correction and modelling of systematic effects, we can now make full use of the CMB polarization observed in the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) channels. The lowmultipole EE crossspectra from the 100 GHz and 143 GHz data give a constraint on the Lambda CDM reionization opticaldepth parameter tau to better than 15% (in combination with the TT lowl data and the highl temperature and polarization data), tightening constraints on all parameters with posterior distributions correlated with tau. We also update the weaker constraint on tau from the joint TEB likelihood using the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) channels, which was used in 2015 as part of our baseline analysis. At higher multipoles, the CMB temperature spectrum and likelihood are very similar to previous releases. A better model of the temperaturetopolarization leakage and corrections for the effective calibrations of the polarization channels (i.e., the polarization efficiencies) allow us to make full use of polarization spectra, improving the Lambda CDM constraints on the parameters theta(MC), omega(c), omega(b), and H0 by more than 30%, and n(s) by more than 20% compared to TTonly constraints. Extensive tests on the robustness of the modelling of the polarization data demonstrate good consistency, with some residual modelling uncertainties. At high multipoles, we are now limited mainly by the accuracy of the polarization efficiency modelling. Using our various tests, simulations, and comparison between different highmultipole likelihood implementations, we estimate the consistency of the results to be better than the 0.5 sigma level on the Lambda CDM parameters, as well as classical singleparameter extensions for the joint likelihood (to be compared to the 0.3 sigma levels we achieved in 2015 for the temperature data alone on Lambda CDM only). Minor curiosities already present in the previous releases remain, such as the differences between the bestfit Lambda CDM parameters for the l< 800 and l> 800 ranges of the power spectrum, or the preference for more smoothing of the powerspectrum peaks than predicted in Lambda CDM fits. These are shown to be driven by the temperature power spectrum and are not significantly modified by the inclusion of the polarization data. Overall, the legacy Planck CMB likelihoods provide a robust tool for constraining the cosmological model and represent a reference for future CMB observations.


2. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLIX. Parityviolation constraints from polarization data
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Parityviolating extensions of the standard electromagnetic theory cause in vacuo rotation of the plane of polarization of propagating photons. This effect, also known as cosmic birefringence, has an impact on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy angular power spectra, producing nonvanishing TB and EB correlations that are otherwise null when parity is a symmetry. Here we present new constraints on an isotropic rotation, parametrized by the angle alpha, derived from Planck 2015 CMB polarization data. To increase the robustness of our analyses, we employ two complementary approaches, in harmonic space and in map space, the latter based on a peak stacking technique. The two approaches provide estimates for alpha that are in agreement within statistical uncertainties and are very stable against several consistency tests. Considering the TB and EB information jointly, we find alpha = 0 degrees: 31 +/ 0 degrees.05 (stat:) +/ 0 degrees:28 (syst:) from the harmonic analysis and alpha = 0 degrees.35 +/ 0 degrees.05 (stat :) 0 degrees.28 (syst :) from the stacking approach. These constraints are compatible with no parity violation and are dominated by the systematic uncertainty in the orientation of Planck's polarizationsensitive bolometers.


3. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored componentseparation method, the socalled generalized needlet internal linear combination (GNILC) method, which uses spatial information (the angular power spectra) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. We produce significantly improved allsky maps of Planck thermal dust emission, with reduced CIB contamination, at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. By reducing the CIB contamination of the thermal dust maps, we provide more accurate estimates of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion, especially at high Galactic latitudes above b = +/ 20 degrees. We find that the dust temperature is T = (19.4 +/ 1.3) K and the dust spectral index is beta = 1.6 +/ 0.1 averaged over the whole sky, while T = (19.4 +/ 1.5) K and beta = 1.6 +/ 0.2 on 21% of the sky at high latitudes. Moreover, subtracting the new CIBremoved thermal dust maps from the CMBremoved Planck maps gives access to the CIB anisotropies over 60% of the sky at Galactic latitudes vertical bar b vertical bar > 20 degrees. Because they are a significant improvement over previous Planck products, the GNILC maps are recommended for thermal dust science. The new CIB maps can be regarded as indirect tracers of the dark matter and they are recommended for exploring crosscorrelations with lensing and largescale structure optical surveys. The reconstructed GNILC thermal dust and CIB maps are delivered as Planck products.


4. 
 Adam, R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation : CMB maps
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present foregroundreduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperaturetopolarization leakage, analoguetodigital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales l greater than or similar to 40. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still nonnegligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with l < 20 are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by highpass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27 mu K averaged over 55' pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1 mu K averaged over 3.'4 pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1 sigma level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higherorder statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of crossspectra and crosscorrelations, or stacking analyses. However, the amplitude of primordial nonGaussianity is consistent with zero within 2 sigma for all local, equilateral, and orthogonal configurations of the bispectrum, including for polarization Emodes. Moreover, excellent agreement is found regarding the lensing Bmode power spectrum, both internally among the various component separation codes and with the bestfit Planck 2015 Lambda cold dark matter model.


5. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below similar to 2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when forced to play a role for z < 50 only. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as kessence, f(R) theories, and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses, we use background constraints from baryonic acoustic oscillations, typeIa supernovae, and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshiftspace distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations (expansion of the equation of state, early DE, general potentials in minimallycoupled scalar fields or principal component analysis) are in agreement with ACDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to ACDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is similar to 2 sigma for Planck TT + lowP when parameterizing observables related to the gravitational potentials with a chosen time dependence; the tension increases to, at most, 3 sigma when external data sets are included. It however disappears when including CMB lensing.


6. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XX. Constraints on inflation
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release papers. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be n(s) = 0.968 +/ 0.006 and tightly constrain its scale dependence to dn(s)/dln k = 0.003 +/ 0.007 when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the Planck highl polarization data are included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are further reduced. The upper bound on the tensortoscalar ratio is r(0).(002) < 0.11 (95% CL). This upper limit is consistent with the Bmode polarization constraint r < 0.12 (95% CL) obtained from a joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck data. These results imply that V(phi) proportional to phi(2) and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensortoscalar ratio, such as R2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple powerlaw spectrum of curvature perturbations, including those motivated by a reconstruction of the inflaton potential not relying on the slowroll approximation. We find that such models are not preferred, either according to a Bayesian model comparison or according to a frequentist simulationbased analysis. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum consistently recover a featureless and smooth PR (k) over the range of scales 0.008 Mpc(1) less than or similar to k less than or similar to 0.1 Mpc(1). At large scales, each method finds deviations from a power law, connected to a deficit at multipoles l approximate to 2040 in the temperature power spectrum, but at an uncompelling statistical significance owing to the large cosmic variance present at these multipoles. By combining power spectrum and nonGaussianity bounds, we constrain models with generalized Lagrangians, including Galileon models and axion monodromy models. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the parameters of the base Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) model are not significantly altered when more general initial conditions are admitted. In correlated mixed adiabatic and isocurvature models, the 95% CL upper bound for the nonadiabatic contribution to the observed CMB temperature variance is vertical bar alpha(nonadi)vertical bar < 1.9%, 4.0%, and 2.9% for CDM, neutrino density, and neutrino velocity isocurvature modes, respectively. We have tested inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum finding that the dipolar modulation in the CMB temperature field induced by a CDM isocurvature perturbation is not preferred at a statistically significant level. We also establish tight constraints on a possible quadrupolar modulation of the curvature perturbation. These results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and further constrain slowroll singlefield inflationary models, as expected from the increased precision of Planck data using the full set of observations.


7. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

XXI. The integrated SachsWolfe effect
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This paper presents a study of the integrated SachsWolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the largescale timeevolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is crosscorrelated with different largescale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint crosscorrelation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4 sigma where most of the signaltonoise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at approximate to 3 sigma (through the ISWlensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the crosscorrelation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the darkenergy parameters; in particular, we show that Omega(Lambda) is detected at more than 3 sigma. This crosscorrelation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMBLSS crosscorrelation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with Lambda CDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive crosscorrelation with these largescale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining the information encoded in all the previously mentioned LSS tracers. In particular, we construct a map of the ISW secondary anisotropies and the corresponding uncertainties map, obtained from simulations. We also explore the reconstruction of the ISW anisotropies caused by the largescale structure traced by the 2MASS Photometric Redshift Survey (2MPZ) by directly inverting the density field into the gravitational potential field.


8. 
 Adam, R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results X. Diffuse component separation : Foreground maps
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of fullsky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, freefree, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Fullsky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7: 5 and 1 degrees. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and bestfit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4pK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, freefree, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external lowfrequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zeropoints. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperaturetopolarization leakage, uncertainties in the analoguetodigital conversion, and corrections for the very long time constant of the bolometer detectors, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.


9. 
 Adam, R., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degeneracy between dust temperature and mass. By complementing the IRAS spectral coverage with Planck satellite data from 100 to 857 GHz, we provide new constraints on the IR spectrum of thermal dust emission in clusters of galaxies. We achieve this by using a stacking approach for a sample of several hundred objects from the Planck cluster sample. This procedure averages out fluctuations from the IR sky, allowing us to reach a significant detection of the faint cluster contribution. We also use the large frequency range probed by Planck, together with componentseparation techniques, to remove the contamination from both cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the thermal SunyaevZeldovich effect (tSZ) signal, which dominate at v <= 353 GHz. By excluding dominant spurious signals or systematic effects, averaged detections are reported at frequencies 353 GHz <= v <= 5000 GHz. We confirm the presence of dust in clusters of galaxies at low and intermediate redshifts, yielding an SED with a shape similar to that of the Milky Way. Planck's resolution does not allow us to investigate the detailed spatial distribution of this emission (e.g. whether it comes from intergalactic dust or simply the dust content of the cluster galaxies), but the radial distribution of the emission appears to follow that of the stacked SZ signal, and thus the extent of the clusters. The recovered SED allows us to constrain the dust mass responsible for the signal and its temperature.


10. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We compute and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB temperature and polarization spectra, which is related to their contribution to cosmological perturbations; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; the impact of PMFs on the ionization history; magneticallyinduced nonGaussianities and related nonzero bispectra; and the magneticallyinduced breaking of statistical isotropy. We present constraints on the amplitude of PMFs that are derived from different Planck data products, depending on the specific effect that is being analysed. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanoGauss, with different bounds that depend on the considered model. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are B1 (Mpc) < 4.4 nG (where B1 Mpc is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity. By considering the Planck likelihood, based only on parityeven angular power spectra, we obtain B1 (Mpc) < 5.6 nG for a maximally helical field. For nearly scaleinvariant PMFs we obtain B1 (Mpc) < 2.0 nG and B1 (Mpc) < 0.9 nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magneticallyinduced nonGaussianity, we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magneticallyinduced passivetensor bispectrum is B1 (Mpc) < 2.8 nG. A search for preferred directions in the magneticallyinduced passive bispectrum yields B1 (Mpc) < 4.5 nG, whereas the compensatedscalar bispectrum gives B1 (Mpc) < 3 nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in EE and BB at 70 GHz and gives B1 (Mpc) < 1380 nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonicspace correlations produced by Alfven waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data.

