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1.
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2.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of sensitisation to pollens and moulds on seasonal variations in asthma attacks
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 42:4, s. 935-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • No large study has described the seasonal variation in asthma attacks in population-based asthmatics in whom sensitisation to allergen has been measured. 2637 young adults with asthma living in 15 countries reported the months in which they usually had attacks of asthma and had skin-prick tests performed. Differences in seasonal patterns by sensitisation status were assessed using generalised estimating equations. Most young adults with asthma reported periods of the year when their asthma attacks were more common (range: 47% in Sweden to 86% in Spain). Seasonal variation in asthma was not modified by sensitisation to house dust mite or cat allergens. Asthmatics sensitised to grass, birch and Alternaria allergens had different seasonal patterns to those not sensitised to each allergen, with some geographical variation. In southern Europe, those sensitised to grass allergens were more likely to report attacks occurred in spring or summer than in winter (OR March/April 2.60, 95% CI 1.70-3.97; OR May/June 4.43, 95% CI 2.34-8.39) and smaller later peaks were observed in northern Europe (OR May/June 1.25, 95% CI 0.60-2.64; OR July/August 1.66, 95% CI 0.89-3.10). Asthmatics reporting hay fever but who were not sensitised to grass showed no seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in asthma attacks in young adults are common and are different depending on sensitisation to outdoor, but not indoor, allergens.
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3.
  • Emilsson, O. I., et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory symptoms, sleep-disordered breathing and biomarkers in nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Research. - 1465-993X .- 1465-9921. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) is associated with respiratory symptoms and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), but the pathogenesis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between nGER and respiratory symptoms, exacerbations of respiratory symptoms, SDB and airway inflammation. Methods: Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III in Iceland with nGER symptoms (n = 48) and age and gender matched controls (n = 42) were studied by questionnaires, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), particles in exhaled air (PEx) measurements, and a home polygraphic study. An exacerbation of respiratory symptoms was defined as an episode of markedly worse respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months. Results: Asthma and bronchitis symptoms were more common among nGER subjects than controls (54 % vs 29 %, p = 0.01; and 60 % vs 26 %, p < 0.01, respectively), as were exacerbations of respiratory symptoms (19 % vs 5 %, p = 0.04). Objectively measured snoring was more common among subjects with nGER than controls (snores per hour of sleep, median (IQR): 177 (79-281) vs 67 (32-182), p = 0.004). Pepsin (2.5 ng/ml (0.8-5.8) vs 0.8 ng/ml (0.8-3.6), p = 0.03), substance P (741 pg/ml (626-821) vs 623 pg/ml (562-676), p < 0.001) and 8-isoprostane (3.0 pg/ml (2.7-3.9) vs 2.6 pg/ml (2.2-2.9), p = 0.002) in EBC were higher among nGER subjects than controls. Albumin and surfactant protein A in PEx were lower among nGER subjects. These findings were independent of BMI. Conclusion: In a general population sample, nGER is associated with symptoms of asthma and bronchitis, as well as exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. Also, nGER is associated with increased respiratory effort during sleep. Biomarker measurements in EBC, PEx and serum indicate that micro-aspiration and neurogenic inflammation are plausible mechanisms.
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4.
  • Gudbjartsson, Daniel F., et al. (författare)
  • Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:3, s. 342-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blood of 9,392 Icelanders. The most significant SNPs were studied further in 12,118 Europeans and 5,212 East Asians. SNPs at 2q12 (rs1420101), 2q13 (rs12619285), 3q21 (rs4857855), 5q31 (rs4143832) and 12q24 (rs3184504) reached genome-wide significance (P = 5.3 x 10(-14), 5.4 x 10(-10), 8.6 x 10(-17), 1.2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated with atopic asthma (P = 4.2 x 10(-6), 2.2 x 10(-5) and 2.4 x 10(-4), respectively). We also found that a nonsynonymous SNP at 12q24, in SH2B3, associated significantly (P = 8.6 x 10(-8)) with myocardial infarction in six different populations (6,650 cases and 40,621 controls).
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5.
  • Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria I, et al. (författare)
  • Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Respiratory Journal. - 1752-6981. ; 3:2, s. 85-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I, the lowest prevalence of asthma and atopy was found in Reykjavik (Iceland)  and Tartu (Estonia). The aim of this study was to compare home environments in Reykjavik and Tartu to a town with a higher prevalence of asthma and atopy (Uppsala, Sweden) in an attempt to identify factors   in the indoor environment that could explain these differences. A random sample of 129 ECRHS II participants was included in this analysis at each of the three study centres. The subjects answered a questionnaire, blood was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E, a   methacholine test was performed and home indoor measurements were taken. The prevalence of atopy was 11.9% in Reykjavik, 35.5% in Uppsala and   28.2% in Tartu (P < 0.04). The level of indoor cat allergen was significantly lower in Reykjavik compared with Uppsala (P = 0.05). No mite allergens were identified in the 41 homes investigated in   Reykjavik, while this was the case in 16% and 72% of the households in Uppsala and Tartu, respectively (P = 0.001). A positive association was found between asthma symptoms and cat allergen levels [odds ratio 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.04-2.24)], while the levels of viable moulds were significantly associated with increased bronchial responsiveness.   Indoor exposure to allergens, moulds and bacteria was lower in Reykjavik than in the Swedish and Estonian centres. This finding indicates that the lower prevalence of allergic sensitization in Reykjavik may partly be related to lower indoor allergen exposure. Please cite this paper as: Gunnbjornsdottir MI, NorbAck D, Bjornsson E, Soon A, Jarvis D, Jogi R, Gislason D, Gislason T and Janson C. Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms. The Clinical Respiratory Journal 2009; 3: 85-94.
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6.
  • Janson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of infectious burden on the prevalence of atopy and respiratory allergies in Iceland, Estonia, and Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 120:3, s. 673-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiologic reports on the effect of microbe exposure on the development of atopy and allergic asthma are inconsistent. Objectives: The study investigates the association between serologic markers of infections and occurrence of atopy, allergic asthma, and rhinitis among adults in Iceland, Sweden, and Estonia. Methods: Individuals (n = 1249; mean age, 42 years) from Iceland, Sweden, and Estonia underwent a structured interview and blood sampling. Specific IgE was measured against 4 allergens, and IgG antibodies were measured against Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasmosis gondii, hepatitis A virus, herpes simplex virus 1, Chlamydia pneumoniae, EBV, and cytomegalovirus. Results: Nonatopic subjects more often had positive serology for Helicobacter pylori, herpes simplex virus 1, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus. Having a low number (≤3) of IgG antibodies against the various infectious agents was an independent risk factor for atopy (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93), allergic asthma (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.12-2.98), and allergic rhinitis (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.21-2.37). The proportion of atopy that can be explained by a lower number (≤3) of infections was 6.7% in Iceland, 9.2% in Estonia, and 16.4% in Sweden, and 6.7%, 48.2%, and 33.4% for allergic asthma, respectively. Conclusion: Our data are consistent with cumulative protective effect of infections against atopy and respiratory allergies irrespective of route of infection. Clinical implications: The study indicates what microbes or combination of microbes play a role in the complex interplay between hygiene and allergy and may contribute toward the understanding of the allergy epidemic.Background: Epidemiologic reports on the effect of microbe exposure on the development of atopy and allergic asthma are inconsistent. Objectives: The study investigates the association between serologic markers of infections and occurrence of atopy, allergic asthma, and rhinitis among adults in Iceland, Sweden, and Estonia. Methods: Individuals (n = 1249; mean age, 42 years) from Iceland, Sweden, and Estonia underwent a structured interview and blood sampling. Specific IgE was measured against 4 allergens, and IgG antibodies were measured against Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasmosis gondii, hepatitis A virus, herpes simplex virus 1, Chlamydia pneumoniae, EBV, and cytomegalovirus. Results: Nonatopic subjects more often had positive serology for Helicobacter pylori, herpes simplex virus 1, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus. Having a low number (≤3) of IgG antibodies against the various infectious agents was an independent risk factor for atopy (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93), allergic asthma (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.12-2.98), and allergic rhinitis (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.21-2.37). The proportion of atopy that can be explained by a lower number (≤3) of infections was 6.7% in Iceland, 9.2% in Estonia, and 16.4% in Sweden, and 6.7%, 48.2%, and 33.4% for allergic asthma, respectively. Conclusion: Our data are consistent with cumulative protective effect of infections against atopy and respiratory allergies irrespective of route of infection. Clinical implications: The study indicates what microbes or combination of microbes play a role in the complex interplay between hygiene and allergy and may contribute toward the understanding of the allergy epidemic.
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7.
  • Jogi, Nils Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of allergic sensitization to storage mites in Northern Europe
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : WILEY. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 50:3, s. 372-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAllergic sensitization to storage mites has mostly been related to occupational exposures like farming, grain/cattle handling, whereas for non‐occupational settings, storage mite sensitization has been attributed to cross‐reactivity with house dust mite (HDM) allergens.ObjectiveWe aimed to describe the prevalence of allergic sensitization to storage mites, co‐sensitization to HDM allergens and respiratory symptoms in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.MethodsThe population comprised of 1180 participants born 1945‐1972 of the third follow‐up of the population‐based cohort European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) in Aarhus, Bergen, Reykjavik and Uppsala. A clinical examination included skin prick tests (SPT) to Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro and common inhalant allergens, as well as standardized interviews.Results8% were sensitized to HDM and 10% to storage mite, with some variation by study centre: Reykjavik 13%, Bergen 8% and Aarhus 7%. In Uppsala, only L destructor (3%) was measured. Storage mite sensitization was higher among men (11%) than women (8%). Among storage mite sensitized, 44% were also sensitized to HDM. Storage mite sensitization was associated with asthma and nasal allergies, but not with age, education, pet keeping or place of upbringing.Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceIn this Northern European population‐based study, allergic sensitization to storage mite was as common as HDM sensitization. Storage mite sensitization was, independently of HDM sensitization, associated with respiratory symptoms and asthma. Our findings suggest that storage mite sensitization should be evaluated with regard to inclusion into the common inhalant allergen panel in Northern Europe.
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8.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies : patterns and implications
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 14, s. 63-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). METHODS: Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). RESULTS: Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95%CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10-20 pack years)). CONCLUSIONS: We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up.
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10.
  • Olafsdottir, Inga Sif, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in the association between C-reactive protein, lung function impairment, and COPD
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. - 1176-9106. ; 2:4, s. 635-642
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals with COPD have systemic inflammation that can be assessed by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP). In this paper we evaluated whether CRP is related to COPD, lung function and rate of lung function decline. We included 1237 randomly selected subjects (mean age 42, range 28–56 years) from three centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: Reykjavik, Uppsala and Tartu. CRP was measured at the end of the follow-up (mean 8.3 years) and the values were divided into 4 quartiles. Fifty-three non-asthmatic subjects fulfilled spirometric criteria for COPD (FEV1/FVC < 70%). COPD occurred more often in the 4th CRP quartile (OR (95% CI) 3.21 (1.13–9.08)) after adjustment for age, gender, body weight and smoking. High CRP levels were related to lower FEV1 values in both men (−437 (−596, −279) mL) and women (−144 (−243, −44) mL). The negative association between CRP and FEV1 was significantly larger in men than women (p = 0.04). The decline in FEV1 was larger (16 (5, 27) mL) in men with high CRP levels whereas no significant association between CRP and FEV1 decline was found in women. Higher CRP values are significantly associated with COPD and lower lung function in men and women. In men higher CRP values are related to a larger decline in FEV1.
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