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Sökning: WFRF:(Gislason Thorsteinn)

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1.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of sensitisation to pollens and moulds on seasonal variations in asthma attacks
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 42:4, s. 935-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • No large study has described the seasonal variation in asthma attacks in population-based asthmatics in whom sensitisation to allergen has been measured. 2637 young adults with asthma living in 15 countries reported the months in which they usually had attacks of asthma and had skin-prick tests performed. Differences in seasonal patterns by sensitisation status were assessed using generalised estimating equations. Most young adults with asthma reported periods of the year when their asthma attacks were more common (range: 47% in Sweden to 86% in Spain). Seasonal variation in asthma was not modified by sensitisation to house dust mite or cat allergens. Asthmatics sensitised to grass, birch and Alternaria allergens had different seasonal patterns to those not sensitised to each allergen, with some geographical variation. In southern Europe, those sensitised to grass allergens were more likely to report attacks occurred in spring or summer than in winter (OR March/April 2.60, 95% CI 1.70-3.97; OR May/June 4.43, 95% CI 2.34-8.39) and smaller later peaks were observed in northern Europe (OR May/June 1.25, 95% CI 0.60-2.64; OR July/August 1.66, 95% CI 0.89-3.10). Asthmatics reporting hay fever but who were not sensitised to grass showed no seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in asthma attacks in young adults are common and are different depending on sensitisation to outdoor, but not indoor, allergens.
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2.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Increased respiratory morbidity associated with exposure to a mature volcanic plume from a large Icelandic fissure eruption.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 2014-15 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland was the largest fissure eruption in over 200 years, emitting prodigious amounts of gas and particulate matter into the troposphere. Reykjavík, the capital area of Iceland (250 km from eruption site) was exposed to air pollution events from advection of (i) a relatively young and chemically primitive volcanic plume with a high sulphur dioxide gas (SO2) to sulphate PM (SO42-) ratio, and (ii) an older and chemically mature volcanic plume with a low SO2/SO42- ratio. Whereas the advection and air pollution caused by the primitive plume were successfully forecast and forewarned in public advisories, the mature plume was not. Here, we show that exposure to the mature plume is associated with an increase in register-measured health care utilisation for respiratory disease by 23% (95% CI 19.7-27.4%) and for asthma medication dispensing by 19.3% (95% CI 9.6-29.1%). Absence of public advisories is associated with increases in visits to primary care medical doctors and to the hospital emergency department. We recommend that operational response to volcanic air pollution considers both primitive and mature types of plumes.
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3.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory health among professionals exposed to extreme SO2 levels from a volcanic eruption.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. - 1795-990X. ; 45:3, s. 312-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The Holuhraun eruption of fall and winter 2014-15 produced large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO 2). The aim of this study was to determine if exposure to extreme SO 2levels affected the health of individuals working at the eruption site. Methods During January‒March 2015, earth scientists, technicians, and law enforcement personnel who were about to work at the eruption site were invited to a respiratory health examination. Symptom reports and lung function measures, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were collected before and after an eruption site visit. Those with previous exposure (N=27) reported symptoms retrospectively. Results Altogether, 41 individuals were invited to participate, 32 underwent a clinical examination at a hospital respiratory health clinic (baseline); 27 reported symptoms during earlier visits to the eruption site (retrospective symptom reports), 17 were re-examined 1-6 days after visiting the eruption site (follow-up). All participants' lung function was within normal range both before and after exposure. At baseline, average FEV 1was 107.4% of predicted versus 106.6 at follow-up (P =0.82); average FVC was 107.0% of predicted at baseline versus 107.4% at follow-up (P=0.35). Eye and nasal irritation were more frequently reported during eruption site exposure by 24% versus 6% (P =0.37) for both. Conclusion Although "healthy-worker" effects cannot be excluded, our data indicate that SO 2exposure was associated with relatively mild and transient respiratory symptoms with no clinical signs of airway inflammation or airway obstruction.
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4.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Severe volcanic SO2 exposure and respiratory morbidity in the Icelandic population – a register study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. - 1476-069X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Holuhraun volcanic eruption September 2014 to February 2015 emitted large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO ). The aim of this study was to determine the association between volcanic SO gases on general population respiratory health some 250 km from the eruption site, in the Icelandic capital area. Methods: Respiratory health outcomes were: asthma medication dispensing (AMD) from the Icelandic Medicines Register, medical doctor consultations in primary care (PCMD) and hospital emergency department visits (HED) in Reykjavík (population: 215000) for respiratory disease from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. The associations between daily counts of health events and daily mean SO concentration and high SO levels (24-h mean SO > 125 μg/m3) were analysed using generalized additive models. Results: After the eruption began, AMD was higher than before (129.4 vs. 158.4 individuals per day, p < 0.05). For PCMD and HED, there were no significant differences between the number of daily events before and after the eruption (142.2 vs 144.8 and 18.3 vs 17.5, respectively). In regression analysis adjusted for other pollutants, SO was associated with estimated increases in AMD by 0.99% (95% CI 0.39–1.58%) per 10 μg/m at lag 0–2, in PCMD for respiratory causes 1.26% (95% CI 0.72–1.80%) per 10 μg/m SO at lag 0–2, and in HED by 1.02% (95% CI 0.02–2.03%) per 10 μg/m SO at lag 0–2. For days over the health limit, the estimated increases were 10.9% (95% CI 2.1–19.6%), 17.2% (95% CI 10.0–24.4%) for AMD and PCMD. Dispensing of short-acting medication increased significantly by 1.09% (95% CI 0.49–1.70%), and PCMD for respiratory infections and asthma and COPD diagnoses and increased significantly by 1.12% (95% CI 0.54–1.71%) and 2.08% (1.13–3.04%). Conclusion: High levels of volcanic SO are associated with increases in dispensing of AMD, and health care utilization in primary and tertiary care. Individuals with prevalent respiratory disease may be particularly susceptible. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
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5.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies : patterns and implications
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 14, s. 63-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). METHODS: Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). RESULTS: Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95%CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10-20 pack years)). CONCLUSIONS: We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up.
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6.
  • Sundberg, Rosita, 1944, et al. (författare)
  • Asthma in men and women: Treatment adherence, anxiety, and quality of sleep.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Respiratory medicine. - 1532-3064 .- 0954-6111. ; 104:3, s. 337-344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare female and male asthmatics with special emphasis on reported adherence, anxiety, and quality of sleep. The study included 470 subjects with current asthma from the Nordic countries, who took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II. Subjects were investigated with a structured clinical interview, including questions on the presence of respiratory symptoms and therapy. They were also asked to fill in the self-reported Hospital Anxiety Depression scale and the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Inhaled corticosteroids (OR=0.55) and a doctor's appointment in the last 12 months (OR=0.54) implied a significantly reduced risk for non-adherence in normal situations. At exacerbation in asthma, women had a significantly decreased risk for non-adherence (OR=0.46). Female gender and anxiety were independent risk factors for both insomnia (OR=3.67 and 2.53, respectively) and daytime sleepiness (OR=2.53 and 2.04, respectively). Women with asthma have a more positive attitude towards their medication, have a higher reported adherence, and use inhaled corticosteroids more often than men. At the same time women report more often anxiety and insomnia than men. Awareness of sex differences in the manifestations and attitudes towards treatment of asthma is important in order to improve asthma management.
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10.
  • Gislason, Thorsteinn, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of frontotemporal dementia in the elderly
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 11:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is believed to be rare in the elderly, and the influence of different criteria on the prevalence of FTD is unclear. METHODS: Population-based samples of 70- to 95-year-olds (n = 2462) in Gothenburg, Sweden, underwent neuropsychiatric examinations. Behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) was diagnosed according to the International Behavioural Variant FTD Criteria Consortium (FTDC), the Frontotemporal Lobe Degeneration Consensus criteria, and the Lund-Manchester Research Criteria. A subset (n = 1074) underwent computerized tomography (CT) of the brain. RESULTS: The prevalence of bvFTD varied between 0.2% and 0.5% at age 70 to 79 years, between 2.5% and 3.6% at age 80 to 89 years, and between 1.7% and 2.2% at age 90 to 95 years. The agreement between different criteria was low to moderate (κ = 0.20-0.42). Among those with bvFTD according to FTDC, 93.3% had frontal and/or temporal lobar atrophy on CT, compared with 12.6% of those without bvFTD (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of bvFTD was higher than expected in this population. To a large extent, different criteria captured different individuals.
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