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Sökning: WFRF:(Glantz A)

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1.
  • Fernandes, CP, et al. (författare)
  • Reflection photoelasticity: a new method for studies of clinical mechanics in prosthetic dentistry
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Dental Materials. - : Elsevier. - 0109-5641 .- 1879-0097. ; 19:2, s. 106-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. This research was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of reflective photoelasticity as an in vivo technique for monitoring the strain/stress distribution in prosthetic devices during function. Methods. Seven subjects were selected for this study and divided into three groups according to the design of the prostheses. The buccal surfaces of the experimental prostheses were coated with a birefringent resin 2 mm thick. Using a reflection polariscope, fringe patterns were documented on video tape during standardized in vivo loadings. Strain and stress levels (gamma(max) and tau(max)) were calculated from isochromatic fringe order determinations. The intra-observer variability in counting fringe orders and the accuracy level of reflective photoelasticity as compared to strain gauge results were also studied. The strain results of in vivo loading of the prostheses were analyzed with ANOVA and Scheffes tests. The intra-observer variability was analyzed with the Friedman nonparametric test. Comparisons of photoelastic data and strain gauges were tested with Pearson's correlation. Results. Coated areas accessible to normally incident light, produced comprehensive maps of strain distribution. Significant differences were found in the in vivo gamma(max) values for the prostheses designs (p < 0.05). The test for intra-observer variability showed that no significant differences occurred in counting fringe orders. Strain values obtained with reflective photoelasticity showed a high correlation r = 0.98 and 0.99) with values obtained at the same areas using strain gauges. Significance. Reflective photoelasticity is a valid, reliable and accurate technique to be used for in vivo studies on the biomechanical behavior of prosthetic devices. (C) 2003 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Gustavsson, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of breed and casein genetic variants on protein profile in milk from Swedish Red, Danish Holstein, and Danish Jersey cows.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Dairy Science. - : American Dairy Science Association. - 1525-3198 .- 0022-0302. ; 97:6, s. 3866-3877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In selecting cows for higher milk yields and milk quality, it is important to understand how these traits are affected by the bovine genome. The major milk proteins exhibit genetic polymorphism and these genetic variants can serve as markers for milk composition, milk production traits, and technological properties of milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between casein (CN) genetic variants and detailed protein composition in Swedish and Danish dairy milk. Milk and DNA samples were collected from approximately 400 individual cows each of 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds: Swedish Red (SR), Danish Holstein (DH), and Danish Jersey (DJ). The protein profile with relative concentrations of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, κ-, and β-CN was determined for each milk sample using capillary zone electrophoresis. The genetic variants of the αS1- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2), and κ-CN (CSN3) genes for each cow were determined using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Univariate statistical models were used to evaluate the effects of composite genetic variants, αS1-β-κ-CN, on the protein profile. The 3 studied Scandinavian breeds differed from each other regarding CN genotypes, with DH and SR having similar genotype frequencies, whereas the genotype frequencies in DJ differed from the other 2 breeds. The similarities in genotype frequencies of SR and DH and differences compared with DJ were also seen in milk production traits, gross milk composition, and protein profile. Frequencies of the most common composite αS1-β-κ-CN genotype BB/A(2)A(2)/AA were 30% in DH and 15% in SR, and cows that had this genotype gave milk with lower relative concentrations of κ- and β-CN and higher relative concentrations of αS-CN, than the majority of the other composite genotypes in SR and DH. The effect of composite genotypes on relative concentrations of the milk proteins was not as pronounced in DJ. The present work suggests that a higher frequency of BB/A(1)A(2)/AB, together with a decrease in BB/A(2)A(2)/AA, could have positive effects on DH and SR milk regarding, for example, the processing of cheese.
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3.
  • Gustavsson, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of genetic variants of milk proteins on chymosin-induced gelation properties of milk from individual cows of Swedish Red dairy cattle
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Dairy Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0958-6946 .- 1879-0143. ; 39:1, s. 102-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chymosin-induced gelation properties of the milk of around 400 Swedish Red dairy cows was investigated with the aim of identifying genetic protein variants that influence chymosin-induced gelation for optimisation of cheese milk through breeding practices. The variation in chymosin-induced gelation properties was shown to be large in the milk of Swedish Red and there was a high frequency of cows producing non-coagulating milk, 18%. The present study showed that the common composite beta-kappa-casein genotypes A(1)A(2)/AE and A(2)A(2)/AA were associated with both poor gelation properties and non-coagulation in the milk of Swedish Red. The present study suggests that if the frequencies of composite genotypes A(1)A(2)/AE and A(2)A(2)/AA were decreased in the Swedish Red population in favour for A(1)A(1)/AA and A(1)A(1)/AE, this could have a positive effect on the rennetability of the milk. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Poulsen, N. A., et al. (författare)
  • The occurrence of noncoagulating milk and the association of bovine milk coagulation properties with genetic variants of the caseins in 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Dairy Science. - : American Dairy Science Association. - 1525-3198 .- 0022-0302. ; 96:8, s. 4830-4842
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Substantial variation in milk coagulation properties has been observed among dairy cows. Consequently, raw milk from individual cows and breeds exhibits distinct coagulation capacities that potentially affect the technological properties and milk processing into cheese. This variation is largely influenced by protein composition, which is in turn affected by underlying genetic polymorphisms in the major milk proteins. In this study, we conducted a large screening on 3 major Scandinavian breeds to resolve the variation in milk coagulation traits and the frequency of milk with impaired coagulation properties (noncoagulation). In total, individual coagulation properties were measured on morning milk collected from 1,299 Danish Holstein (DH), Danish Jersey (DJ), and Swedish Red (SR) cows. The 3 breeds demonstrated notable interbreed differences in coagulation properties, with DJ cows exhibiting superior coagulation compared with the other 2 breeds. In addition, milk samples from 2% of DH and 16% of SR cows were classified as noncoagulating. Furthermore, the cows were genotyped for major genetic variants in the alpha(S1)- (CSN1S1), beta- (CSN2), and kappa-casein (CSN3) genes, revealing distinct differences in variant frequencies among breeds. Allele I of CSN2, which had not formerly been screened in such a high number of cows in these Scandinavian breeds, showed a frequency around 7% in DH and DJ, but was not detected in SR. Genetic polymorphisms were significantly associated with curd firming rate and rennet coagulation time. Thus, CSN1S1 C, CSN2 B, and CSN3 B positively affected milk coagulation, whereas CSN2 A(2), in particular, had a negative effect. In addition to the influence of individual casein genes, the effects of CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN3 composite genotypes were also examined, and revealed strong associations in all breeds, which more or less reflected the single gene results. Overall, milk coagulation is under the influence of additive genetic variation. Optimal milk for future cheese production can be ensured by monitoring the frequency of unfavorable variants and thus preventing an increase in the number of cows producing milk with impaired coagulation. Selective breeding for variants associated with superior milk coagulation can potentially increase raw milk quality and cheese yield in all 3 Scandinavian breeds.
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5.
  • Struthers, Hamish, et al. (författare)
  • Climate-induced changes in sea salt aerosol number emissions : 1870 to 2100
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. - 2169-897X. ; 118:2, s. 670-682
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global climate model output is combined with an emission parameterization to estimate the change in the global and regional sea salt aerosol number emission from 1870 to 2100. Global average results suggest a general increase in sea salt aerosol number emission due to increasing surface wind speed. However, the emission changes are not uniform over the aerosol size spectrum due to an increase in sea surface temperature. From 1870 to 2100 the emission of coarse mode particles (dry diameter D-P > 655 nm) increase by approximately 10 % (global average), whereas no significant change in the emission of ultrafine mode aerosols (dry diameter D-p < 76 nm) was found over the same period. Significant regional differences in the number emission trends were also found. Based on CAM-Oslo global climate model output, no straight-forward relationship was found between the change in the number emissions and changes in the sea salt aerosol burden or optical thickness. This is attributed to a change in the simulated residence time of the sea salt aerosol. For the 21st century, a decrease in the residence time leads to a weaker sea salt aerosol-climate feedback that what would be inferred based on changes in number emissions alone. Finally, quantifying any potential impact on marine stratocumulus cloud microphysical and radiative properties due to changes in sea salt aerosol number emissions is likely to be complicated by commensurate changes in anthropogenic aerosol emissions and changes in meteorology.
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6.
  • Andersson, I. M., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of protein surface coverage and layer thickness on rehydration characteristics of milk serum protein/lactose powder particles
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Colloids and Surfaces A. - : Elsevier. - 0927-7757 .- 1873-4359. ; 561, s. 395-404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spray-dried powders were produced from milk serum protein concentrate and lactose in varying ratios, and the rehydration characteristics of the powders were evaluated. The dissolution rate was estimated with a flow-cell based technique, and the external and internal distribution of the powder components were evaluated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy, respectively. The surface of the powder particles is more or less covered by a thin protein layer. A phase segregation between protein and lactose is observed in the interior of the particle resulting in a protein rich layer in the vicinity of the surface. However, the protein layer in the vicinity of the particle surface tends to become thinner as the bulk protein concentration increases in the powders (from 10 to 60% w/w). The time for the spontaneous imbibition to occur show a linear correlation with the protein surface coverage. The dissolution rate of powders containing 0.1% w/w protein is around 60 times faster than for a powder containing 1% w/w protein but the dissolution rate of powders containing 1% and 100% w/w differ only by a factor of 2. Thus, it is suggested that the outer protein layer becomes denser at the interface as the protein content increases in the powders, thereby causing poorer rehydration characteristics of the powders (especially for low protein concentrations 0.1–1% w/w). This insight has relevance for the formulation of whey protein powders with improved rehydration characteristics. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
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7.
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8.
  • Bärebring, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Preeclampsia and Blood Pressure Trajectory during Pregnancy in Relation to Vitamin D Status
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OH) D concentration and preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory. This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1) and third (T3) trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4). Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations (LC-MS/MS) in T1 was not significantly associated with preeclampsia. However, both 25(OH) D in T3 and change in 25 (OH) D from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with preeclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OH) D concentration of >= 30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22 (p = 0.002) for preeclampsia. T1 25(OH) D was positively related to T1 systolic (beta = 0.03, p = 0.022) and T1 diastolic blood pressure (beta = 0.02, p = 0.016), and to systolic (beta = 0.02, p = 0.02) blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses. There was no association between 25(OH) D and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OH) D concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for preeclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension.
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9.
  • Bärebring, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Trajectory of vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to neonatal birth size and fetal survival: a prospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. - 1471-2393. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We investigated the associations between vitamin D status in early and late pregnancy with neonatal small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. Furthermore, associations between vitamin D status and pregnancy loss were studied. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was sampled in gestational week <= 16 (trimester 1 (T1), N = 2046) and > 31 (trimester 3 (T3), N = 1816) and analysed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Pregnant women were recruited at antenatal clinics in south-west Sweden at latitude 57-58 degrees N. Gestational and neonatal data were retrieved from medical records. Multiple gestations and terminated pregnancies were excluded from the analyses. SGA was defined as weight and/or length at birth < 2 SD of the population mean and LBW as < 2500 g. Preterm delivery was defined as delivery < 37 + 0 gestational weeks and pregnancy loss as spontaneous abortion or intrauterine fetal death. Associations between neonatal outcomes and 25OHD at T1, T3 and change in 25OHD (T3-T1) were studied using logistic regression. Results: T1 25OHD was negatively associated with pregnancy loss and 1 nmol/L increase in 25OHD was associated with 1% lower odds of pregnancy loss (OR 0.99, p = 0.046). T3 25OHD >= 100 nmol/L (equal to 40 ng/ml) was associated with lower odds of SGA (OR 0.3, p = 0.031) and LBW (OR 0.2, p = 0.046), compared to vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 30 nmol/L, or 12 ng/ml). Women with a >= 30 nmol/L increment in 25OHD from T1 to T3 had the lowest odds of SGA, LBW and preterm delivery. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency in late pregnancy was associated with higher odds of SGA and LBW. Lower 25OHD in early pregnancy was only associated with pregnancy loss. Vitamin D status trajectory from early to late pregnancy was inversely associated with SGA, LBW and preterm delivery with the lowest odds among women with the highest increment in 25OHD. Thus, both higher vitamin D status in late pregnancy and gestational vitamin D status trajectory can be suspected to play a role in healthy pregnancy.
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10.
  • Fernandes, Cláudio Pinheiro, et al. (författare)
  • A Novel Sensor for Bite Force Determinations
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Dental Materials. - 0109-5641 .- 1879-0097. ; 19:2, s. 118-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The clinical usefulness, accuracy and precision of a novel bite force sensor based on force sensing resistors were tested in six subjects wearing maxillary removable partial dentures retained by conical crowns. METHODS: The surfaces of the sensor were manufactured in a silicone material that had mechanical properties similar to those of tough foodstuffs. In two separate series of standardized bite force tests, submaximum force levels were recorded with the sensor and with a strain gaged bite fork. Subjects were assisted in the loading tests with visual feedback instrumentation. Reliability estimates for the bite force sensor were calculated in order to show their reproducibility. Strain gages attached to the prostheses were used to determine the pattern of force distribution during loading tests. The bite force results obtained with the new bite force sensor and with the bite fork were analyzed with ANOVA and Scheffes tests. The strain patterns registered with strain gages were analyzed with F-test. RE-SULTS: The bite force sensor and the bite fork transducer showed no statistically significant differences in respect of intra-individual bite force levels (range 50-300N). The bite forces registered with the new sensor were dependent on the loading position (p<0.05), sex (p<0.05) and test subject (p<0.05). The reliability of the new sensor for sub-maximum bite forces was calculated to be 93%. Strain gage results showed that the new sensor generated strain patterns of less variance (p<0.05) than the bite fork and therefore allowed for higher precision during biting tests. SIGNIFICANCE: The presented instrument has such clinical merits, as to favor its use in experimental clinical studies on the biomechanics of prosthetic appliances.
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