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Sökning: WFRF:(Goering Harald H. H.)

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  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
  • Sigurdsson, Snaevar, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive evaluation of the genetic variants of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) reveals a novel 5 bp length polymorphism as strong risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 17:6, s. 872-881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed a comprehensive set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and length polymorphisms in the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene for their association with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 485 Swedish patients and 563 controls. We found 16 SNPs and two length polymorphisms that display association with SLE (P < 0.0005, OR > 1.4). Using a Bayesian model selection and averaging approach we identified parsimonious models with exactly two variants of IRF5 that are independently associated with SLE. The variants of IRF5 with the highest posterior probabilities (1.00 and 0.71, respectively) of being causal in SLE are a SNP (rs10488631) located 3' of IRF5, and a novel CGGGG insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphism located 64 bp upstream of the first untranslated exon (exon 1A) of IRF5. The CGGGG indel explains the association signal from multiple SNPs in the IRF5 gene, including rs2004640, rs10954213 and rs729302 previously considered to be causal variants in SLE. The CGGGG indel contains three or four repeats of the sequence CGGGG with the longer allele containing an additional SP1 binding site as the risk allele for SLE. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays we show increased binding of protein to the risk allele of the CGGGG indel and using a minigene reporter assay we show increased expression of IRF5 mRNA from a promoter containing this allele. Increased expression of IRF5 protein was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients carrying the risk allele of the CGGGG indel. We have found that the same IRF5 allele also confers risk for inflammatory bowel diseases and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a general role for IRF5 in autoimmune diseases.
  • Friedman, James S., et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in a BTB-Kelch Protein, KLHL7, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 84:6, s. 792-800
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases that result in dysfunction and/or death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. So far, 18 genes have been identified for autosomal-dominant (ad) RP. Here, we describe an adRP locus (RP42) at chromosome 7p15 through linkage analysis in a six-generation Scandinavian family and identify a disease-causing mutation, c.449G -> A (p.S150N), in exon 6 of the KLHL7 gene. Mutation screening of KLHL7 in 502 retinopathy probands has revealed three different missense mutations in six independent families. KLHL7 is widely expressed, including expression in rod photoreceptors, and encodes a 75 kDa protein of the BTB-Kelch Subfamily within the BTB superfamily. BTB-Kelch proteins have been implicated in ubiquitination through Cullin E3 ligases. Notably, all three putative disease-causing KLHL7 mutations are within a conserved BACK domain; homology modeling suggests that mutant amino acid side chains can potentially fill the cleft between two helices, thereby affecting the ubiquitination complexes. Mutations in an identical region of another BTB-Kelch protein, gigaxonin, have previously been associated with giant axonal neuropathy. Our studies suggest an additional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein-degradation pathway in maintaining neuronal health and in disease.
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