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Sökning: WFRF:(Gram IT)

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1.
  • Duarte-Salles, T., et al. (författare)
  • Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : Wiley-Liss Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 135:7, s. 1662-1672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (Ncases = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (Ncases = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; ptrend = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; ptrend = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; ptrend = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration. What's New? Currently, the role of dairy product intake in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Using detailed data from a large multi-centric prospective cohort, this study investigated the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products with first incident HCC. The study found that higher dairy product consumption, particularly milk and cheese, was associated with increased HCC risk. Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein did not explain the observed associations. However, higher circulating IGF-I levels may play a role. © 2014 UICC.
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2.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Cigarette Smoking on Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755 .- 0732-183X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSEOur aim was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of the tumors classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as causally associated with smoking, referred to as tobacco-related cancers (TRC). METHODSThe study population included 441,211 participants (133,018 men and 308,193 women) from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. We investigated 14,563 participants who developed a TRC during an average follow-up of 11 years. The impact of smoking cigarettes on cancer risk was assessed by the population attributable fraction (AF(p)), calculated using the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CI for current and former smokers, plus either the prevalence of smoking among cancer cases or estimates from surveys in representative samples of the population in each country.ResultsThe proportion of all TRC attributable to cigarette smoking was 34.9% (95% CI, 32.5 to 37.4) using the smoking prevalence among cases and 36.2% (95% CI, 33.7 to 38.6) using the smoking prevalence from the population. The AF(p) were above 80% for cancers of the lung and larynx, between 20% and 50% for most respiratory and digestive cancers and tumors from the lower urinary tract, and below 20% for the remaining TRC. CONCLUSIONUsing data on cancer incidence for 2008 and our AF(p) estimates, about 270,000 new cancer diagnoses per year can be considered attributable to cigarette smoking in the eight European countries with available data for both men and women (Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Denmark).
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3.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and Metabolic Biomarkers and Risk of Liver and Biliary Tract Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1527-3350 .- 0270-9139. ; 60:3, s. 858-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however, there are little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD), and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n = 125), GBTC (n = 137), or IBD (n = 34). Using risk-set sampling, controls were selected in a 2: 1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection, and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMWadiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.02-1.46; P = 0.03; 1.90; 95% CI = 1.30-2.77; P = 0.001; 2.25; 95% CI = 1.43-3.54; P = 0.0005; and 2.09; 95% CI = 1.19-3.67; P = 0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05-1.42; P = 0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.25-2.11; P = 0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95% CI = 2.20-50.90; P = 0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMW adiponectin and 0.46 for GLDH, indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors.
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4.
  • Anantharaman, Devasena, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685 .- 0300-5771. ; 45:3, s. 61-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not understood.METHODS: Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multi-centre studies. Odds ratios and credible intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression.RESULTS: Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association of smoking and HPV seropositivity was consistent with that expected on the additive scale (synergy index [CrI]: 1.32 [0.51, 3.45]), suggesting they act as independent risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was consistently associated with increase in oropharyngeal cancer risk in models stratified by HPV16 seropositivity. In addition, we report that the prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer increases with smoking for both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative persons. The impact of smoking on HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer highlights the continued need for smoking cessation programmes for primary prevention of head and neck cancer.
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5.
  • Büchner, Frederike L, et al. (författare)
  • Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : Wiley. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 128:12, s. 2971-2979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent research does not show an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. None of these studies investigated variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, which may capture different aspects of consumption. We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Detailed data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 452,185 participants, who were recruited from ten European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 874 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDSs) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of the DDSs on bladder cancer risk. There was no evidence of a statistically significant association between bladder cancer risk and any of the DDSs when these scores were considered as continuous covariates. However, the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest tertile of the DDS for combined fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant compared to the lowest (HR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.69, p-trend = 0.05). In EPIC, there is no clear association between a varied fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. This finding provides further evidence for the absence of any strong association between fruit and vegetable consumption as measured by a food frequency questionnaire and bladder cancer risk.
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6.
  • Buckland, G, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of bladder cancer in the EPIC cohort study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 134:10, s. 2504-2511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, to date no epidemiological study has investigated the influence of the MD on bladder cancer. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of urothelial cell bladder cancer (UCC), according to tumor aggressiveness, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 477,312 participants, recruited from ten European countries between 1991 and 2000. Information from validated dietary questionnaires was used to develop a relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED), including nine dietary components. Cox regression models were used to assess the effect of the rMED on UCC risk, while adjusting for dietary energy and tobacco smoking of any kind. Stratified analyses were performed by sex, BMI, smoking status, European region and age at diagnosis. During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1,425 participants (70.9% male) were diagnosed with a first primary UCC. There was a negative but non-significant association between a high versus low rMED score and risk of UCC overall (HR: 0.84 [95% CI 0.69, 1.03]) and risk of aggressive (HR: 0.88 [95% CI 0.61, 1.28]) and non-aggressive tumors (HR: 0.78 [95% CI 0.54, 1.14]). Although there was no effect modification in the stratified analyses, there was a significant 34% (p = 0.043) decreased risk of UCC in current smokers with a high rMED score. In EPIC, the MD was not significantly associated with risk of UCC, although we cannot exclude that a MD may reduce risk in current smokers.
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7.
  • Buechner, Frederike L., et al. (författare)
  • Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 125:11, s. 2643-2651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for a total of 478,533 participants, who were recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of rate ratios were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender and study centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement errors. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1015 participants were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Increments of 100 g/day in fruit and vegetable consumption combined did not affect bladder cancer risk (i.e., calibrated HR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.95-1.01). Borderline statistically significant lower bladder cancer risks were found among fever smokers with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR = 0.94 95%CI: 0.87-1.00 with increments of 100 g/day; calibrate HR = 0.92 95%CI 0.79-1.06) and increased consumption of apples and pears (hard fruit; calibrated HR = 0.90 95%CI: 0.82-0.98 with increments of 25 g/day). For none of the associations a statistically significant interaction with smoking status was found. Our findings do not support an effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, combined or separately, on bladder cancer risk. (c) 2009 UICC
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8.
  • Castellsague, Xavier, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective seroepidemiologic study on the role of Human Papillomavirus and other infections in cervical carcinogenesis: Evidence from the EPIC cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 135:2, s. 440-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate prospectively the association between serological markers of selected infections, including HPV, and risk of developing cervical cancer (CC) and precancer, we performed a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study that included 184 cases of invasive CC (ICC), 425 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 1,218 matched control women. At enrollment participants completed lifestyle questionnaires and provided sera. Subjects were followed-up for a median of 9 years. Immunoassays were used to detect serum antibodies to Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumoniae, L1 proteins of mucosal and cutaneous HPV types, E6/E7 proteins of HPV16/18, as well as to four polyomaviruses. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) [and 95% confidence intervals (CI)] for CIN3/CIS and ICC risk were respectively: 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.8 (1.1-2.7) for L1 seropositivity to any mucosal HPV type, 1.0 (0.4-2.4) and 7.4 (2.8-19.7) for E6 seropositivity to HPV16/18, 1.3 (0.9-1.9) and 2.3 (1.3-4.1) for CT seropositivity, and 1.4 (1.0-2.0) and 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for HHV-2 seropositivity. The highest OR for ICC was observed for HPV16 E6 seropositivity [OR=10.2 (3.3-31.1)]. Increasing number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was associated with increasing risk. Non-STIs were not associated with CC risk. In conclusion, this large prospective study confirms the important role of HPV and a possible contribution of CT and HHV-2 in cervical carcinogenesis. It further identifies HPV16 E6 seropositivity as the strongest marker to predict ICC well before disease development. What's New? Limited data are available from prospective studies concerning the role of past exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) and other infections in cervical carcinogenesis. This study assessed associations between cervical cancer and pre-cancer and serological markers of exposure to mucosal and cutaneous HPVs, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumonia, human herpes virus-2 (HHV-2), and polyomaviruses using a nested case-control design within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Associations were found for mucosal HPVs, CT, and HHV-2. A greater number of sexually transmitted diseases further raised the risk of cervical cancer.
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9.
  • Duell, E. J., et al. (författare)
  • Menstrual and reproductive factors in women, genetic variation in CYP17A1, and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 132:9, s. 2164-2175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Menstrual and reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use have been investigated as pancreatic cancer risk factors in case-control and cohort studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective examination of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and pancreatic cancer risk (based on 304 cases) in 328,610 women from the EPIC cohort. Then, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, we examined 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP17A1 (an essential gene in sex steroid metabolism) for association with pancreatic cancer in women and men (324 cases and 353 controls). Of all factors analyzed, only younger age at menarche (<12 vs. 13 years) was moderately associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the full cohort; however, this result was marginally significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99-2.10). CYP17A1 rs619824 was associated with HRT use (p value = 0.037) in control women; however, none of the SNPs alone, in combination, or as haplotypes were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, with the possible exception of an early age of menarche, none of the menstrual and reproductive factors, and none of the 12 common genetic variants we evaluated at the CYP17A1 locus makes a substantial contribution to pancreatic cancer susceptibility in the EPIC cohort. What's new Because the incidence of pancreatic cancer is 30-50% higher in men than women, researchers have wondered whether exposure to estrogen might offer a protective effect. The answer thus far has been unclear, however. In this study, the authors examined menstrual and reproductive factors in women, as well as exogenous hormone use. They also examined variants of the CYP17A1 gene in both women and men, as this gene is essential for sex-steroid metabolism. Only early age of menarche showed any association with pancreatic cancer risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
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10.
  • Fortner, Renée T, et al. (författare)
  • Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers : results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:6, s. 1317-1323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case–control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at p < 0.157 indicating improvement in the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Improvement in discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic for all biomarkers alone, and change in C-statistic from addition of biomarkers to preexisting absolute risk estimates. We used internal validation with bootstrapping (1000-fold) to adjust for over-fitting. Adiponectin, estrone, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and triglycerides were selected into the model. After accounting for over-fitting, discrimination was improved by 2.0 percentage points when all evaluated biomarkers were included and 1.7 percentage points in the model including the selected biomarkers. Models including etiologic markers on independent pathways and genetic markers may further improve discrimination.
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