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Sökning: WFRF:(Grinberg Daniel)

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  • Zheng, Hou-Feng, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 526:7571, s. 112-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 × 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 × 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 × 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.
  • Grinberg, Inna Rozman, et al. (författare)
  • Novel ATP-cone-driven allosteric regulation of ribonucleotide reductase via the radical-generating subunit
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - : ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2050-084X. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are key enzymes in DNA metabolism, with allosteric mechanisms controlling substrate specificity and overall activity. In RNRs, the activity master-switch, the ATP-cone, has been found exclusively in the catalytic subunit. In two class I RNR subclasses whose catalytic subunit lacks the ATP-cone, we discovered ATP-cones in the radical-generating subunit. The ATP-cone in the Leeuwenhoekiella blandensis radical-generating subunit regulates activity via quaternary structure induced by binding of nucleotides. ATP induces enzymatically competent dimers, whereas dATP induces non-productive tetramers, resulting in different holoenzymes. The tetramer forms by interactions between ATP-cones, shown by a 2.45 A crystal structure. We also present evidence for an (MnMnIV)-Mn-III metal center. In summary, lack of an ATP-cone domain in the catalytic subunit was compensated by transfer of the domain to the radical-generating subunit. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of transfer of an allosteric domain between components of the same enzyme complex.
  • Loderer, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • A unique cysteine-rich zinc finger domain present in a majority of class II ribonucleotide reductases mediates catalytic turnover
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 292:46, s. 19044-19054
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides, used in DNA synthesis and repair. Two different mechanisms help deliver the required electrons to the RNR active site. Formate can be used as reductant directly in the active site, or glutaredoxins or thioredoxins reduce a C-terminal cysteine pair, which then delivers the electrons to the active site. Here, we characterized a novel cysteine-rich C-terminal domain (CRD), which is present in most class II RNRs found in microbes. The NrdJd-type RNR from the bacterium Stackebrandtia nassauensis was used as a model enzyme. We show that the CRD is involved in both higher oligomeric state formation and electron transfer to the active site. The CRD-dependent formation of high oligomers, such as tetramers and hexamers, was induced by addition of dATP or dGTP, but not of dTTP or dCTP. The electron transfer was mediated by an array of six cysteine residues at the very C-terminal end, which also coordinated a zinc atom. The electron transfer can also occur between subunits, depending on the enzyme's oligomeric state. An investigation of the native reductant of the system revealed no interaction with glutaredoxins or thioredoxins, indicating that this class II RNR uses a different electron source. Our results indicate that the CRD has a crucial role in catalytic turnover and a potentially new terminal reduction mechanism and suggest that the CRD is important for the activities of many class II RNRs.
  • Rozman Grinberg, Inna, et al. (författare)
  • A glutaredoxin domain fused to the radical-generating subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) functions as an efficient RNR reductant
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 293:41, s. 15889-15900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) consists of a catalytic subunit (NrdA) and a radical-generating subunit (NrdB) that together catalyze reduction of ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. NrdB from the firmicute Facklamia ignava is a unique fusion protein with N-terminal add-ons of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain followed by an ATP-binding domain, the ATP cone. Grx, usually encoded separately from the RNR operon, is a known RNR reductant. We show that the fused Grx domain functions as an efficient reductant of the F. ignava class I RNR via the common dithiol mechanism and, interestingly, also via a monothiol mechanism, although less efficiently. To our knowledge, a Grx that uses both of these two reaction mechanisms has not previously been observed with a native substrate. The ATP cone is in most RNRs an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit. It is an allosteric on/off switch promoting ribonucleotide reduction in the presence of ATP and inhibiting RNR activity in the presence of dATP. We found that dATP bound to the ATP cone of F. ignava NrdB promotes formation of tetramers that cannot form active complexes with NrdA. The ATP cone bound two dATP molecules but only one ATP molecule. F. ignava NrdB contains the recently identified radical-generating cofactor MnIII/MnIV. We show that NrdA from F. ignava can form a catalytically competent RNR with the MnIII/MnIV-containing NrdB from the flavobacterium Leeuwenhoekiella blandensis. In conclusion, F. ignava NrdB is fused with a Grx functioning as an RNR reductant and an ATP cone serving as an on/off switch.
  • Benetó, Noelia, et al. (författare)
  • Neuronal and Astrocytic Differentiation from Sanfilippo C Syndrome iPSCs for Disease Modeling and Drug Development
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Medicine. - : MDPI AG. - 2077-0383. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sanfilippo syndrome type C (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC) is an early-onset neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder, which is currently untreatable. The vast majority of studies focusing on disease mechanisms of Sanfilippo syndrome were performed on non-neural cells or mouse models, which present obvious limitations. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an efficient way to model human diseases in vitro. Recently developed transcription factor-based differentiation protocols allow fast and efficient conversion of iPSCs into the cell type of interest. By applying these protocols, we have generated new neuronal and astrocytic models of Sanfilippo syndrome using our previously established disease iPSC lines. Moreover, our neuronal model exhibits disease-specific molecular phenotypes, such as increase in lysosomes and heparan sulfate. Lastly, we tested an experimental, siRNA-based treatment previously shown to be successful in patients' fibroblasts and demonstrated its lack of efficacy in neurons. Our findings highlight the need to use relevant human cellular models to test therapeutic interventions and shows the applicability of our neuronal and astrocytic models of Sanfilippo syndrome for future studies on disease mechanisms and drug development.
  • Benetó, Noelia, et al. (författare)
  • Sanfilippo syndrome : Molecular basis, disease models and therapeutic approaches
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-6596. ; 21:21
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sanfilippo syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis III is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes responsible for the degradation of heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan located in the extracellular membrane. Undegraded heparan sulfate molecules accumulate within lysosomes leading to cellular dysfunction and pathology in several organs, with severe central nervous system degeneration as the main phenotypical feature. The exact molecular and cellular mechanisms by which impaired degradation and storage lead to cellular dysfunction and neuronal degeneration are still not fully understood. Here, we compile the knowledge on this issue and review all available animal and cellular models that can be used to contribute to increase our understanding of Sanfilippo syndrome disease mechanisms. Moreover, we provide an update in advances regarding the different and most successful therapeutic approaches that are currently under study to treat Sanfilippo syndrome patients and discuss the potential of new tools such as induced pluripotent stem cells to be used for disease modeling and therapy development.
  • Carlsson, Per-Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Transplantation of macroencapsulated human islets within the bioartificial pancreas βAir to patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Transplantation. - 1600-6135 .- 1600-6143. ; 18:7, s. 1735-1744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macroencapsulation devices provide the dual possibility to immunoprotect transplanted cells while also being retrievable; the latter bearing importance for safety in future trials with stem-cell derived cells. However, macroencapsulation entails a problem with oxygen supply to the encapsulated cells. The βAir device solves this with an incorporated refillable oxygen tank. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of implanting the βAir device containing allogeneic human pancreatic islets to patients with type 1 diabetes. Four patients were transplanted with 1-2 βAir devices, each containing 155000-180000 IEQ (i.e. 1800-4600 IEQ per kg body weight), and monitored for 3-6 months, followed by the recovery of devices. Implantation of the βAir device was safe and successfully prevented immunization and rejection of the transplanted tissue. However, although beta cells survived in the device, only minute levels of circulating C-peptide were observed with no impact on metabolic control. Fibrotic tissue with immune cells was formed in capsule surroundings. Recovered devices displayed a blunted glucose-stimulated insulin response, and amyloid formation in the endocrine tissue. We conclude that the βAir device is safe and can support survival of allogeneic islets for several months, although the function of the transplanted cells was limited.
  • Grinberg, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicogenomics directory of chemically exposed human hepatocytes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Archives of Toxicology. - 1432-0738 .- 0340-5761. ; 88:12, s. 2261-2287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap, we used the Open TG-GATES database with Affymetrix files of cultivated human hepatocytes incubated with chemicals, further sets of gene array data with hepatocytes from human donors generated in this study, and publicly available genome-wide datasets of human liver tissue from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). After a curation procedure, expression data of 143 chemicals were included into a comprehensive biostatistical analysis. The results are summarized in the publicly available toxicotranscriptomics directory (http://wiki.toxbank.net/toxicogenomics-map/) which provides information for all genes whether they are up- or downregulated by chemicals and, if yes, by which compounds. The directory also informs about the following key features of chemically influenced genes: (1) Stereotypical stress response. When chemicals induce strong expression alterations, this usually includes a complex but highly reproducible pattern named 'stereotypical response.' On the other hand, more specific expression responses exist that are induced only by individual compounds or small numbers of compounds. The directory differentiates if the gene is part of the stereotypical stress response or if it represents a more specific reaction. (2) Liver disease-associated genes. Approximately 20 % of the genes influenced by chemicals are up- or downregulated, also in liver disease. Liver disease genes deregulated in cirrhosis, HCC, and NASH that overlap with genes of the aforementioned stereotypical chemical stress response include CYP3A7, normally expressed in fetal liver; the phase II metabolizing enzyme SULT1C2; ALDH8A1, known to generate the ligand of RXR, one of the master regulators of gene expression in the liver; and several genes involved in normal liver functions: CPS1, PCK1, SLC2A2, CYP8B1, CYP4A11, ABCA8, and ADH4. (3) Unstable baseline genes. The process of isolating and the cultivation of hepatocytes was sufficient to induce some stress leading to alterations in the expression of genes, the so-called unstable baseline genes. (4) Biological function. Although more than 2,000 genes are transcriptionally influenced by chemicals, they can be assigned to a relatively small group of biological functions, including energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune response, protein modification, endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, cytoskeletal organization, stress response, and DNA repair. In conclusion, the introduced toxicotranscriptomics directory offers a basis for a rationale choice of candidate genes for biomarker evaluation studies and represents an easy to use source of background information on chemically influenced genes.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 17
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