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Sökning: WFRF:(Gronberg Henrik)

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  • Strom, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Artificial intelligence for diagnosis and grading of prostate cancer in biopsies : a population-based, diagnostic study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 21:2, s. 222-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAn increasing volume of prostate biopsies and a worldwide shortage of urological pathologists puts a strain on pathology departments. Additionally, the high intra-observer and inter-observer variability in grading can result in overtreatment and undertreatment of prostate cancer. To alleviate these problems, we aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) system with clinically acceptable accuracy for prostate cancer detection, localisation, and Gleason grading.MethodsWe digitised 6682 slides from needle core biopsies from 976 randomly selected participants aged 50–69 in the Swedish prospective and population-based STHLM3 diagnostic study done between May 28, 2012, and Dec 30, 2014 (ISRCTN84445406), and another 271 from 93 men from outside the study. The resulting images were used to train deep neural networks for assessment of prostate biopsies. The networks were evaluated by predicting the presence, extent, and Gleason grade of malignant tissue for an independent test dataset comprising 1631 biopsies from 246 men from STHLM3 and an external validation dataset of 330 biopsies from 73 men. We also evaluated grading performance on 87 biopsies individually graded by 23 experienced urological pathologists from the International Society of Urological Pathology. We assessed discriminatory performance by receiver operating characteristics and tumour extent predictions by correlating predicted cancer length against measurements by the reporting pathologist. We quantified the concordance between grades assigned by the AI system and the expert urological pathologists using Cohen's kappa.FindingsThe AI achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0·997 (95% CI 0·994–0·999) for distinguishing between benign (n=910) and malignant (n=721) biopsy cores on the independent test dataset and 0·986 (0·972–0·996) on the external validation dataset (benign n=108, malignant n=222). The correlation between cancer length predicted by the AI and assigned by the reporting pathologist was 0·96 (95% CI 0·95–0·97) for the independent test dataset and 0·87 (0·84–0·90) for the external validation dataset. For assigning Gleason grades, the AI achieved a mean pairwise kappa of 0·62, which was within the range of the corresponding values for the expert pathologists (0·60–0·73).InterpretationAn AI system can be trained to detect and grade cancer in prostate needle biopsy samples at a ranking comparable to that of international experts in prostate pathology. Clinical application could reduce pathology workload by reducing the assessment of benign biopsies and by automating the task of measuring cancer length in positive biopsy cores. An AI system with expert-level grading performance might contribute a second opinion, aid in standardising grading, and provide pathology expertise in parts of the world where it does not exist.
  • Amundadottir, Laufey T., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant associated with prostate cancer in European and African populations
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - DeCODE Genet, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Iceland, Landspitali Hosp, Dept Pathol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Iceland, Landspitali Hosp, Dept Urol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Urol & Clin Med, Orebro, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Michigan, Dept Urol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Dept Urol, Chicago, IL 60611 USA. Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA. Univ Chicago, Dept Human Genet, Chicago, IL 60637 USA. Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 38:6, s. 652-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is important. Here we report such a variant on chromosome 8q24, a region initially identified through a study of Icelandic families. Allele -8 of the microsatellite DG8S737 was associated with prostate cancer in three case-control series of European ancestry from Iceland, Sweden and the US. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the allele is 1.62 (P = 2.7 x 10(-11)). About 19% of affected men and 13% of the general population carry at least one copy, yielding a population attributable risk (PAR) of approximately 8%. The association was also replicated in an African American case-control group with a similar OR, in which 41% of affected individuals and 30% of the population are carriers. This leads to a greater estimated PAR (16%) that may contribute to higher incidence of prostate cancer in African American men than in men of European ancestry.
  • Bady, Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • DNA methylation-based age acceleration observed in IDH wild-type glioblastoma is associated with better outcome - including in elderly patients
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - : BMC. - 2051-5960. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elderly patients represent a growing proportion of individuals with glioblastoma, who however, are often excluded from clinical trials owing to poor expected prognosis. We aimed at identifying age-related molecular differences that would justify and guide distinct treatment decisions in elderly glioblastoma patients. The combined DNA methylome (450 k) of four IDH wild-type glioblastoma datasets, comprising two clinical trial cohorts, was interrogated for differences based on the patients age, DNA methylation (DNAm) age acceleration (DNAm age "Horvath-clock" minus patient age), DNA methylation-based tumor classification (Heidelberg), entropy, and functional methylation of DNA damage response (DDR) genes. Age dependent methylation included 19 CpGs (p-value <= 0.1, Bonferroni corrected), comprising a CpG located in the ELOVL2 gene that is part of a 13-gene forensic age predictor. Most of the age related CpGs (n = 16) were also associated with age acceleration that itself was associated with a large number of CpGs (n = 50,551). Over 70% age acceleration-associated CpGs (n = 36,348) overlapped with those associated with the DNA methylation based tumor classification (n = 170,759). Gene set enrichment analysis identified associated pathways, providing insights into the biology of DNAm age acceleration and respective commonalities with glioblastoma classification. Functional methylation of several DDR genes, defined as correlation of methylation with gene expression (r <= -0.3), was associated with age acceleration (n = 8), tumor classification (n = 12), or both (n = 4), the latter including MGMT. DNAm age acceleration was significantly associated with better outcome in both clinical trial cohorts, whereof one comprised only elderly patients. Multivariate analysis included treatment (RT, RT/TMZ -> TMZ; TMZ, RT), MGMT promoter methylation status, and interaction with treatment. In conclusion, DNA methylation features of age acceleration are an integrative part of the methylation-based tumor classification (RTK I, RTK II, MES), while patient age seems hardly reflected in the glioblastoma DNA methylome. We found no molecular evidence justifying other treatments in elderly patients, not owing to frailty or co-morbidities.
  • Bailey-Wilson, Joan E, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Xq27-28 linkage in the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics (ICPCG) families
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2350 .- 1471-2350. ; 13, s. 46-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic variants are likely to contribute to a portion of prostate cancer risk. Full elucidation of the genetic etiology of prostate cancer is difficult because of incomplete penetrance and genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that genetic linkage to prostate cancer has been found on several chromosomes including the X; however, identification of causative genes has been elusive.Methods: Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using 26 microsatellite markers in each of 11 groups of multiple-case prostate cancer families from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). Meta-analyses of the resultant family-specific linkage statistics across the entire 1,323 families and in several predefined subsets were then performed.Results: Meta-analyses of linkage statistics resulted in a maximum parametric heterogeneity lod score (HLOD) of 1.28, and an allele-sharing lod score (LOD) of 2.0 in favor of linkage to Xq27-q28 at 138 cM. In subset analyses, families with average age at onset less than 65 years exhibited a maximum HLOD of 1.8 (at 138 cM) versus a maximum regional HLOD of only 0.32 in families with average age at onset of 65 years or older. Surprisingly, the subset of families with only 2-3 affected men and some evidence of male-to-male transmission of prostate cancer gave the strongest evidence of linkage to the region (HLOD = 3.24, 134 cM). For this subset, the HLOD was slightly increased (HLOD = 3.47 at 134 cM) when families used in the original published report of linkage to Xq27-28 were excluded.Conclusions: Although there was not strong support for linkage to the Xq27-28 region in the complete set of families, the subset of families with earlier age at onset exhibited more evidence of linkage than families with later onset of disease. A subset of families with 2-3 affected individuals and with some evidence of male to male disease transmission showed stronger linkage signals. Our results suggest that the genetic basis for prostate cancer in our families is much more complex than a single susceptibility locus on the X chromosome, and that future explorations of the Xq27-28 region should focus on the subset of families identified here with the strongest evidence of linkage to this region.
  • Barbieri, Christopher E., et al. (författare)
  • The Mutational Landscape of Prostate Cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 64:4, s. 567-576
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with marked variability in patient outcomes. Molecular characterization has revealed striking mutational heterogeneity that may underlie the variable clinical course of the disease. Objective: In this review, we discuss the common genomic alterations that form the molecular basis of PCa, their functional significance, and the potential to translate this knowledge into patient care. Evidence acquisition: We reviewed the relevant literature, with a particular focus on recent studies on somatic alterations in PCa. Evidence synthesis: Advances in sequencing technology have resulted in an explosion of data regarding the mutational events underlying the development and progression of PCa. Heterogeneity is the norm; few abnormalities in specific genes are highly recurrent, but alterations in certain signaling pathways do predominate. These alterations include those in pathways known to affect tumorigenesis in a wide spectrum of tissues, such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/phosphatase and tensin homolog/Akt pathway, cell cycle regulation, and chromatin regulation. Alterations more specific to PCa are also observed, particularly gene fusions of ETS transcription factors and alterations in androgen signaling. Mounting data suggest that PCa can be subdivided based on a molecular profile of genetic alterations. Conclusions: Major advances have been made in cataloging the genomic alterations in PCa and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. These findings raise the possibility that PCa could soon transition from being a poorly understood, heterogeneous disease with a variable clinical course to being a collection of homogenous subtypes identifiable by molecular criteria, associated with distinct risk profiles, and perhaps amenable to specific management strategies or targeted therapies. (C) 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Berndt, Sonja I, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale fine mapping of the HNF1B locus and prostate cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 20:16, s. 3322-3329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.
  • Bonn, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 139:1, s. 50-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25<30, 30<35 and 35 kg/m(2), respectively, compared to the reference (18.5<25 kg/m(2)). No statistically significant associations were seen between BMI and prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. What's new? High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Here, the authors assessed the association between BMI and serum PSA level and prostate cancer risk in a large prospective cohort study. While no statistically significant associations were found between BMI and overall risk of prostate cancer, increasing BMI was associated with decreased serum PSA levels among men with no previous prostate cancer diagnosis. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on PSA-test results.
  • Cantarutti, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and mortality in men with prostate cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 75:11, s. 1129-1136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDBody Mass index (BMI) has been shown to affect risk and mortality of several cancers. Prostate cancer and obesity are major public health concerns for middle-aged and older men. Previous studies of pre-diagnostic BMI have found an increased risk of prostate cancer mortality in obese patients. OBJECTIVETo study the associations between BMI at time of prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer specific and overall mortality. METHODSBMI was analyzed both as a continuous variable and categorized into four groups based on the observed distribution in the cohort (BMI<22.5, 22.5<25, 25<27.5 and 27.5kg/m(2)). The association between BMI and mortality was assessed using stratified Cox proportional hazards models and by fitting regression splines for dose response analysis in 3,161 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. After 11 years of follow up via linkage to the population-based cause of death registry, we identified 1,161 (37%) deaths off which 690 (59%) were due to prostate cancer. RESULTSHigh BMI (BMI27.5kg/m(2)) was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of prostate cancer specific mortality (HR:1.44, 95%CI: 1.09-1.90) and overall mortality (HR:1.33, 95%CI: 1.09-1.63) compared to the reference group (BMI 22.5<25kg/m(2)). Additionally, men with a low BMI (<22.5kg/m(2)), had a statistically significant increased risk of prostate cancer specific mortality (HR:1.33, 95%CI: 1.02-1.74) and overall mortality (HR:1.36, 95%CI: 1.11-1.67) compared to the reference. However, this effect disappeared when men who died within the first two years of follow-up were excluded from the analyses while the increased risk of prostate cancer specific mortality and overall mortality remained statistically significant for men with a BMI27.5kg/m(2) (HR:1.44, 95%CI: 1.09-1.90 and HR: 1.33, 95%CI: 1.09-1.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONThis study showed that a high BMI at time of prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with increased overall mortality. Prostate 75: 1129-1136, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Carlsson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Spatially resolved measurements of gas composition in a pressurised black liquor gasifier
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. - 1944-7442 .- 1944-7450. ; 28:3, s. 316-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Black liquor gasification is a new process for recovery of energy and chemicals in black liquor from the Kraft pulping process. The process can be combined with catalytic conversion of syngas into motor fuels. The potential for motor fuel production from black liquor in Sweden is to replace about 25% of the current consumption ofgasoline and diesel. For Finland the figure is even higher while for Canada it is about 14% and for the USA about 2%. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 28: 316-323, 2009.
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