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  • Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S., et al. (författare)
  • A novel rare CUBN variant and three additional genes identified in Europeans with and without diabetes : results from an exome-wide association study of albuminuria
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 62:2, s. 292-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants. Methods: We performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included. Results: We identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, β = 0.27, p = 1.3 × 10−11) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (pinteraction = 7.0 × 10−4, β with diabetes = 0.69, β without diabetes = 0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (pBonferroni < 2.7 × 10−6). Conclusions/interpretation: The current study identifies a rare coding variant in the CUBN locus and other potential genes associated with albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes. These genes have been implicated in renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. The findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of albuminuria and highlight target genes and pathways for the prevention of diabetes-related kidney disease.
  • Andersen, Mette K., et al. (författare)
  • Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults Differs Genetically From Classical Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed After the Age of 35 Years
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 33:9, s. 2062-2064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE- We studied differences between patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), type 2 diabetes, and classical type 1 diabetes diagnosed after age 35 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Polymorphisms in HLA-DQB1, INS, PTPN22, and CTLA4 were genotyped in patients with LADA (n = 213), type 1 diabetes diagnosed at >35 years of age (T1D(>35y); n = 257) or <20 years of age (T1D(<20y); n = 158), and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS- Although patients with LADA had an increased frequency of HLA-DQB1 and PTPN22 risk genotypes and alleles compared with type 2 diabetic subjects, the frequency was significantly lower compared with T1D(>35y) patients. Genotype frequencies, measures of insulin secretion, and metabolic traits within LADA differed according to GAD antibody (GADA) quartiles, but even the highest quartile differed from type 1 diabetes. Having two or more risk genotypes was associated with lower C-peptide concentrations in LADA. CONCLUSIONS- LADA patients differed genetically and phenotypically from both T1D(>35y) and type 2 diabetic patients in a manner dependent on GADA levels.
  • Andersen, Mette, et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants predispose to adult-onset autoimmune diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 57:9, s. 1859-1868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is phenotypically a hybrid of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Genetically LADA is poorly characterised but does share genetic predisposition with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to improve the genetic characterisation of LADA and hypothesised that type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants also predispose to LADA, and that the associations would be strongest in LADA patients with low levels of GAD autoantibodies (GADA). Methods We assessed 41 type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants in Finnish (phase I) and Swedish (phase II) patients with LADA (n=911) or type 1 diabetes (n=406), all diagnosed after the age of 35 years, as well as in non-diabetic control individuals 40 years or older (n=4,002). Results Variants in the ZMIZ1 (rs12571751, p=4.1 x 10(-5)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, p=5.8 x 10(-4)) loci were strongly associated with LADA. Variants in the KCNQ1 (rs2237895, p=0.0012), HHEX (rs1111875, p=0.0024 in Finns) and MTNR1B (rs10830963, p=0.0039) loci showed the strongest association in patients with low GADA, supporting the hypothesis that the disease in these patients is more like type 2 diabetes. In contrast, variants in the KLHDC5 (rs10842994, p=9.5 x 10(-4) in Finns), TP53INP1 (rs896854, p=0.005), CDKAL1 (rs7756992, p=7.0 x 10(-4); rs7754840, p=8.8 x 10(-4)) and PROX1 (rs340874, p=0.003) loci showed the strongest association in patients with high GADA. For type 1 diabetes, a strong association was seen for MTNR1B (rs10830963, p=3.2 x 10(-6)) and HNF1A (rs2650000, p=0.0012). Conclusions/interpretation LADA and adult-onset type 1 diabetes share genetic risk variants with type 2 diabetes, supporting the idea of a hybrid form of diabetes and distinguishing them from patients with classical young-onset type 1 diabetes.
  • Andersson, Anneli, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous and simultaneous determination of venous blood metabolites
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Talanta. - : Elsevier. - 0039-9140. ; 171, s. 270-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of interrelated clinical disorders. Difficulties in regulating glucose levels in blood are implicated in many of these disorders. Lactate, another energy metabolite, is produced under anaerobic conditions and can be used to monitor the balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Tested together, these metabolite levels can provide pro-diagnostic information that improves patient outcomes. Glucose and lactate were determined continuously and simultaneously in whole blood using a dual-channel thermal biosensor device in which one channel employed glucose oxidase for glucose analysis in comparison with lactate oxidase for lactate analysis in the others. No detectable clogging or interference was observed using venous blood samples. The linear detection range for both the glucose and lactate assays was 0.5–45 mM. The sampling rate of up to 24 samples per hour with assay cycle time of 2.5 min was achieved. Comparative analysis between our device and the HemoCue method showed an excellent correlation. The device was stable for hundreds of injections over a period of 45 days. The broad linear range, fast response and detection sensitivity are satisfactory for the clinical requirements, e.g. for diabetic or cardiovascular patients in intensive care units or surgical operation, where the tight control of blood glucose can decrease morbidity or mortality.
  • Barreiro, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary extracellular vesicles : Assessment of pre-analytical variables and development of a quality control with focus on transcriptomic biomarker research
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles. - : Co-Action Publishing. - 2001-3078. ; 10:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEV) are a topical source of non-invasive biomarkers for health and diseases of the urogenital system. However, several challenges have become evident in the standardization of uEV pipelines from collection of urine to biomarker analysis. Here, we studied the effect of pre-analytical variables and developed means of quality control for uEV isolates to be used in transcriptomic biomarker research. We included urine samples from healthy controls and individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and normo-, micro- or macroalbuminuria and isolated uEV by ultracentrifugation. We studied the effect of storage temperature (-20°C vs. -80°C), time (up to 4 years) and storage format (urine or isolated uEV) on quality of uEV by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, Western blotting and qPCR. Urinary EV RNA was compared in terms of quantity, quality, and by mRNA or miRNA sequencing. To study the stability of miRNA levels in samples isolated by different methods, we created and tested a list of miRNAs commonly enriched in uEV isolates. uEV and their transcriptome were preserved in urine or as isolated uEV even after long-term storage at -80°C. However, storage at -20°C degraded particularly the GC-rich part of the transcriptome and EV protein markers. Transcriptome was preserved in RNA samples extracted with and without DNAse, but read distributions still showed some differences in e.g. intergenic and intronic reads. MiRNAs commonly enriched in uEV isolates were stable and concordant between different EV isolation methods. Analysis of never frozen uEV helped to identify surface characteristics of particles by EM. In addition to uEV, qPCR assays demonstrated that uEV isolates commonly contained polyoma viruses. Based on our results, we present recommendations how to store and handle uEV isolates for transcriptomics studies that may help to expedite standardization of the EV biomarker field.
  • Berglund, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) Stimulates Osteopontin Expression in the Vasculature via Endothelin-1 and CREB.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 65:1, s. 239-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone with extrapancreatic effects beyond glycemic control. Here we demonstrate unexpected effects of GIP signaling in the vasculature. GIP induces the expression of the pro-atherogenic cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in mouse arteries, via local release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Infusion of GIP increases plasma OPN levels in healthy individuals. Plasma ET-1 and OPN levels are positively correlated in patients with critical limb ischemia. Fasting GIP levels are higher in individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke) when compared to controls. GIP receptor (GIPR) and OPN mRNA levels are higher in carotid endarterectomies from patients with symptoms (stroke, transient ischemic attacks, amaurosis fugax) than in asymptomatic patients; and expression associates to parameters characteristic of unstable and inflammatory plaques (increased lipid accumulation, macrophage infiltration and reduced smooth muscle cell content). While GIPR expression is predominantly endothelial in healthy arteries from human, mouse, rat and pig; remarkable up-regulation is observed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells upon culture conditions yielding a "vascular disease-like" phenotype. Moreover, a common variant rs10423928 in the GIPR gene associated with increased risk of stroke in type 2 diabetes patients.
  • Fagerholm, E., et al. (författare)
  • SNP in the genome-wide association study hotspot on chromosome 9p21 confers susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 55:9, s. 2386-2393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parental type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy in offspring with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus have recently been identified. It is, however, not known whether such SNPs also confer susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We genotyped nine SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in genome-wide association studies in the Finnish population, and tested for their association with diabetic nephropathy as well as with severe retinopathy and cardiovascular disease in 2,963 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Replication of significant SNPs was sought in 2,980 patients from three other cohorts. In the discovery cohort, rs10811661 near gene CDKN2A/B was associated with diabetic nephropathy. The association remained after robust Bonferroni correction for the total number of tests performed in this study (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.14, 1.56], p = 0.00045, p (36tests) = 0.016). In the meta-analysis, the combined result for diabetic nephropathy was significant, with a fixed effects p value of 0.011 (OR 1.15 [95% CI 1.02, 1.29]). The association was particularly strong when patients with end-stage renal disease were compared with controls (OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.13, 1.60], p = 0.00038). The same SNP was also associated with severe retinopathy (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.10, 1.69] p = 0.0040), but the association did not remain after Bonferroni correction (p (36tests) = 0.14). None of the other selected SNPs was associated with nephropathy, severe retinopathy or cardiovascular disease. A SNP predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus, rs10811661 near CDKN2A/B, is associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
  • Gao, Xiang, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of GIP on regional blood flow during normoglycemia and hyperglycemia in anesthetized rats
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physiological Reports. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 2051-817X. ; 6:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and affects -cell turnover. This study aimed at evaluating if some of the beneficial effects of GIP on glucose homeostasis can be explained by modulation of islet blood flow. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with different doses of GIP (10, 20, or 60ng/kg*min) for 30min. Subsequent organ blood flow measurements were performed with microspheres. In separate animals, islets were perfused exvivo with GIP (10(-6)-10(-12)mol/L) during normo- and hyperglycemia and arteriolar responsiveness was recorded. The highest dose of GIP potentiated insulin secretion during hyperglycemia, but had no effect in normoglycemic rats. The highest GIP concentration decreased blood perfusion of whole pancreas, pancreatic islets, duodenum, colon, liver and kidneys. The decrease in blood flow was unaffected by ganglion blockade or adenosine receptor inhibition. In contrast to this, in single perfused islets GIP induced a dose-dependent arteriolar dilation. Thus, high doses of GIP exert a direct dilatory effect on islet arterioles in isolated islets, but induce a generalized vasoconstriction in splanchnic organs, including the whole pancreas and islets, invivo. The latter effect is unlikely to be mediated by adenosine, the autonomic nervous system, or endothelial mediators.
  • Meng, Weihua, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study suggests new evidence for an association of the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene with severe diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-375X. ; 96:7, s. 811-819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to severe diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A genome-wide association approach was applied. In the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) datasets, cases of severe diabetic retinopathy were defined as type 2 diabetic patients who were ever graded as having severe background retinopathy (Level R3) or proliferative retinopathy (Level R4) in at least one eye according to the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Grading Scheme or who were once treated by laser photocoagulation. Controls were diabetic individuals whose longitudinal retinopathy screening records were either normal (Level R0) or only with mild background retinopathy (Level R1) in both eyes. Significant Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were taken forward for meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts. Results: Five hundred and sixty cases of type 2 diabetes with severe diabetic retinopathy and 4,106 controls were identified in the GoDARTS cohort. We revealed that rs3913535 in the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene reached a p value of 4.05 × 10−9. Two nearby SNPs, rs10765219 and rs11018670 also showed promising p values (p values = 7.41 × 10−8 and 1.23 × 10−8, respectively). In the meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts (excluding GoDARTS), rs10765219 and rs11018670 showed associations for diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.003 and 0.007, respectively), while the p value of rs3913535 was not significant (p = 0.429). Conclusion: This genome-wide association study of severe diabetic retinopathy suggests new evidence for the involvement of the NOX4 gene.
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