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  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813 .- 1089-490X. ; 92:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Iurilli, M. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLife. - : eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • The upgraded DO detector
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 565:2, s. 463-537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The DO experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid -argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run 1, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DO.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in High-Multiplicity He-3 + Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity He-3 + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in He-3 + Au and in p + p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the He-3 + Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d + Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three He-3 nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Improved measurements of two-photon widths of the chi(cJ) states and helicity analysis for chi(c2) -> gamma gamma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 96:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on 448.1 x 10(6) Psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, the decays Psi(3686) -> gamma chi(cJ), chi(cJ) -> gamma gamma(J = 0, 1, 2) are studied. The decay branching fractions of chi(c0,2) -> gamma gamma are measured to be B(chi(c0) -> gamma gamma) = (1.93 +/- 0.08 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.05) x 10(-4) and B(chi(c2) -> gamma gamma) = (3.10 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.07 +/- 0.11) x 10(-4) which correspond to two-photon decay widths of Gamma(gamma gamma)(chi(c0)) = 2.03 +/- 0.08 +/- 0.06 +/- 0.13 keV and Gamma(gamma gamma)(chi(c2)) = 0.60 +/- 0.02 +/- 0.01 +/- 0.04 keV with a ratio of R = Gamma(gamma gamma)(chi(c2))/Gamma(gamma gamma)(chi(c0)) = 0.295 +/- 0.014 +/- 0.007 +/- 0.027, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic and associated with the uncertainties of B(Psi(3686) -> gamma chi(c0,2)) and the total widths Gamma(chi(c0,2)), respectively. For the forbidden decay of chi(c1) -> gamma gamma, no signal is observed, and an upper limit on the two-photon width is obtained to be Gamma(gamma gamma)(chi(c1)) < 5.3 eV at the 90% confidence level. The ratio of the two-photon widths between helicity-zero and helicity-two components in the decay chi(c2) -> gamma gamma is also measured to be f(0/2) = Gamma(lambda=0)(gamma gamma) (chi(c2))/Gamma(lambda=2)(gamma gamma) (chi(c2)) = (0.0 +/- 0.6 +/- 1.2) x 10(-2), where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.
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