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Sökning: WFRF:(Gustafsson Björn 1948)

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  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, 1947, et al. (författare)
  • Growth hormone dose-dependent pubertal growth : a randomized trial in short children with low growth hormone secretion
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - : S. Karger AG. - 1663-2818 .- 1663-2826. ; 82:3, s. 158-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) treatment regimens do not account for the pubertal increase in endogenous GH secretion. This study assessed whether increasing the GH dose and/or frequency of administration improves pubertal height gain and adult height (AH) in children with low GH secretion during stimulation tests, i. e. idiopathic isolated GH deficiency.Methods: A multicenter, randomized, clinical trial (No. 88-177) followed 111 children (96 boys) at study start from onset of puberty to AH who had received GH(33) mu g/kg/day for >= 1 year. They were randomized to receive 67 mu g/kg/day (GH(67)) given as one (GH(67x1); n = 35) or two daily injections (GH(33x2); n = 36), or to remain on a single 33 mu g/kg/day dose (GH(33x1); n = 40). Growth was assessed as height SDS gain for prepubertal, pubertal and total periods, as well as AH SDS versus the population and the midparental height.Results: Pubertal height SDS gain was greater for patients receiving a high dose (GH(67), 0.73) than a low dose (GH(33x1), 0.41, p < 0.05). AH(SDS) was greater on GH(67) (GH(67x1), -0.84; GH(33x2), -0.83) than GH(33) (-1.25, p < 0.05), and height SDS gain was greater on GH(67) than GH(33) (2.04 and 1.56, respectively; p < 0.01). All groups reached their target height SDS.Conclusion: Pubertal height SDS gain and AH SDS were dose dependent, with greater growth being observed for the GH(67) than the GH(33) randomization group; however, there were no differences between the once-and twice-daily GH(67) regimens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • Ahlsson, Fredrik, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Adipokines and their relation to maternal energy substrate production, insulin resistance and fetal size
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0301-2115 .- 1872-7654. ; 168:1, s. 26-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:The role of adipokines in the regulation of energy substrate production in non-diabetic pregnant women has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that serum concentrations of adiponectin are related to fetal growth via maternal fat mass, insulin resistance and glucose production, and further, that serum levels of leptin are associated with lipolysis and that this also influences fetal growth. Hence, we investigated the relationship between adipokines, energy substrate production, insulin resistance, body composition and fetal weight in non-diabetic pregnant women in late gestation.STUDY DESIGN:Twenty pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation at Uppsala University Hospital. Levels of adipokines were related to rates of glucose production and lipolysis, maternal body composition, insulin resistance, resting energy expenditure and estimated fetal weights. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were estimated by stable isotope dilution technique.RESULTS:Median (range) rate of glucose production was 805 (653-1337)μmol/min and that of glycerol production, reflecting lipolysis, was 214 (110-576)μmol/min. HOMA insulin resistance averaged 1.5±0.75 and estimated fetal weights ranged between 2670 and 4175g (-0.2 to 2.7 SDS). Mean concentration of adiponectin was 7.2±2.5mg/L and median level of leptin was 47.1 (9.9-58.0)μg/L. Adiponectin concentrations (7.2±2.5mg/L) correlated inversely with maternal fat mass, insulin resistance, glucose production and fetal weight, r=-0.50, p<0.035, r=-0.77, p<0.001, r=-0.67, p<0.002, and r=-0.51, p<0.032, respectively. Leptin concentrations correlated with maternal fat mass and insulin resistance, r=0.76, p<0.001 and r=0.73, p<0.001, respectively. There was no correlation between maternal levels of leptin and rate of glucose production or fetal weight. Neither were any correlations found between levels of leptin or adiponectin and maternal lipolysis or resting energy expenditure.CONCLUSION:The inverse correlations between levels of maternal adiponectin and insulin resistance as well as endogenous glucose production rates indicate that low levels of adiponectin in obese pregnant women may represent one mechanism behind increased fetal size. Maternal levels of leptin are linked to maternal fat mass and its metabolic consequences, but the data indicate that leptin lacks a regulatory role with regard to maternal lipolysis in late pregnancy.
  • Andersson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • A transcriptional timetable of autumn senescence
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 5:4, s. R24-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We have developed genomic tools to allow the genus Populus (aspens and cottonwoods) to be exploited as a full-featured model for investigating fundamental aspects of tree biology. We have undertaken large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing programs and created Populus microarrays with significant gene coverage. One of the important aspects of plant biology that cannot be studied in annual plants is the gene activity involved in the induction of autumn leaf senescence. Results On the basis of 36,354 Populus ESTs, obtained from seven cDNA libraries, we have created a DNA microarray consisting of 13,490 clones, spotted in duplicate. Of these clones, 12,376 (92%) were confirmed by resequencing and all sequences were annotated and functionally classified. Here we have used the microarray to study transcript abundance in leaves of a free-growing aspen tree (Populus tremula) in northern Sweden during natural autumn senescence. Of the 13,490 spotted clones, 3,792 represented genes with significant expression in all leaf samples from the seven studied dates. Conclusions We observed a major shift in gene expression, coinciding with massive chlorophyll degradation, that reflected a shift from photosynthetic competence to energy generation by mitochondrial respiration, oxidation of fatty acids and nutrient mobilization. Autumn senescence had much in common with senescence in annual plants; for example many proteases were induced. We also found evidence for increased transcriptional activity before the appearance of visible signs of senescence, presumably preparing the leaf for degradation of its components.
  • Andrén, Thomas, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Income Effects from Labor Market Training Programs in Sweden During the 80's and 90's
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Manpower. ; :25, s. 688-713
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish labor market programs appear large from an international perspective, yet their consequences are not fully investigated and understood. In this paper we estimate a control function estimator with training effect modeled as a random coefficient, partitioned in an observed and unobserved component. We investigate labor market training for three cohorts during the 80s and the beginning of the 90s on its effect on earnings. We separate the analysis between Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals to identify differences in their responses to training. The results indicate that there is positive sorting into training. We find that the proportion of trainees having positive rewards from training was not very different from the proportion having negative rewards. This means that the results do not support the view that from efficiency considerations, too few persons were enrolled in labor market training during this period. Differences in results across cohorts can be interpreted as being caused by rapid changes in the labor market. Further, consistent with results from several previous studies we find that being young often means no positive pay-off from training, and the same is found for persons with only primary education. In conflict with what earlier studies have shown, we found that males have a better pay-off from training than females. Rewards from training were higher for foreign-born than for natives and rewards among the former vary by place of birth
  • Andrén, Thomas, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Social Assistance Receipt - Experiences from Sweden during a Period of Rapidly Deteriorating Labour Market Conditions
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Social Welfare. ; :13, s. 55-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyses Swedish-born people who became first-time receivers of social assistance in 1987 and 1992. The macroeconomic situation at the time of entry was rather different for the two cohorts and the number of new entrances increased by almost 50 percent. Much of the increase consisted of young adults and experience of social assistance has been shown to be fairly widespread among those under age of 25. The role of bridging the period for individuals of being supported by their parents to being established as wage earners has become an important function of social assistance in Sweden. We find that pattern of social assistance receipt is rather heterogeneous across new recipients. The complex pattern of receipt means that due to choice of perspective, duration of social assistance can appear rather different. On one hand we find that median duration of social assistance receipt is as low as two years when an eleven-year follow-up period is applied. On the other hand, among people who receive social assistance during one particular year, as many as half had entered receipt more than four years earlier.
  • Begum, Syeda Shahanara, 1960, et al. (författare)
  • Economic growth and child poverty reduction in Bangladesh and China
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Asian Economics. - : Elsevier BV. - 1049-0078. ; 23:1, s. 73-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyzes child poverty in Bangladesh and China during periods of rapid economic growth. It compares the extent as well as profile of child poverty in both countries. Comparisons on the extent of child poverty over time and across countries are made using a decomposition framework attributing child poverty differences to differences in three components: mean child income, demographic circumstances and the distribution of child income. Child poverty is found to be more extensive in Bangladesh than in China, and is very much a problem for rural children in both countries. The results show that economic growth can reduce child poverty but does not always do so. For understanding changes over time and across countries in the extent of child poverty, it can be necessary to also consider changes/differences in the distribution of child income as well as in the demographic composition.
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