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Sökning: WFRF:(HAITES N)

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  • Dick, FD, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism : The Geoparkinson study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 64:10, s. 666-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries. Methods: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases were defined using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria, and those with drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism or dementia were excluded. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about lifetime occupational and hobby exposure to solvents, pesticides, iron, copper and manganese. Lifetime and average annual exposures were estimated blind to disease status using a job-exposure matrix modified by subjective exposure modelling. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, tobacco use, ever knocked unconscious and family history of Parkinson's disease. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed significantly increased odds ratios for Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism with an exposure-response relationship for pesticides (low vs no exposure, odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% Cl 0.82 to 1.57, high vs no exposure, OR =1.41, 95% Cl 1.06 to 1.88) and ever knocked unconscious (once vs never, OR= 1.35, 95% Cl 1.09 to 1.68, more than once vs never, OR = 2.53, 95% Cl 1.78 to 3.59). Hypnotic, anxiolytic or antidepressant drug use for more than 1 year and a family history of Parkinson's disease showed significantly increased odds ratios. Tobacco use was protective (OR = 0.50, 95% Cl 0.42 to 0.60). Analyses confined to subjects with Parkinson's disease gave similar results. Conclusions: The association of pesticide exposure with Parkinson's disease suggests a causative role. Repeated traumatic loss of consciousness is associated with increased risk.
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  • Dick, FD, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-environment interactions in parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease : The Geoparkinson study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 64:10, s. 673-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonian syndromes with polymorphic genes that influence metabolism of either foreign chemical substances or dopamine and to seek evidence of gene-environment interaction effects that modify risk. Methods: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and 1989 controls across five European centres. Occupational hygienists estimated the average annual intensity of exposure to solvents, pesticides and metals, (iron, copper, manganese), blind to disease status. CYP2D6, PON1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, CYP1B1, MAO-A, MAO-B, SOD 2, EPHX, DATl, DRD2 and NAT2 were genotyped. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression adjusting for key confounders. Results: There was a modest but significant association between MAO-A polymorphism in males and disease risk (G vs T, OR 1.30, 95% C1 1.02 to 1.66, adjusted). The majority of gene-environment analyses did not show significant interaction effects. There were possible interaction effects between GSTM1 null genotype and solvent exposure (which were stronger when limited to PD cases only). Conclusions: Many small studies have reported associations between genetic polymorphisms and PD. Fewer have examined gene-environment interactions. This large study was sufficiently powered to examine these aspects. GSTM1 null subjects heavily exposed to solvents appear to be at increased risk of PD. There was insufficient evidence that the other gene-environment combinations investigated modified disease risk, suggesting they contribute little to the burden of PD.
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  • Moller, P, et al. (författare)
  • Survival in prospectively ascertained familial breast cancer: Analysis of a series stratified by tumour characteristics, BRCA mutations and oophorectomy
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 101:6, s. 555-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dedicated clinics have been established for the early diagnosis and treatment of women at risk for inherited breast cancer, but the effects of such interventions are currently unproven. This second report on prospectively diagnosed inherited breast cancer from the European collaborating centres supports the previous conclusions and adds information on genetic heterogeneity and the effect of oophorectomy. Of 249 patients, 20% had carcinoma in situ (CIS), 54% had infiltrating cancer without spread (CaNO) and 26% had cancer with spread (CaN+). Five-year survival was 100% for CIS, 94% for CaNO and 72% for CaN+ (p = 0.007). Thirty-six patients had BRCA1 mutations, and 8 had BRCA2 mutations. Presence of BRCA1 mutation was associated with infiltrating cancer, high grade and lack of oestrogen receptor (p < 0.05 for all 3 characteristics). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, 5-year survival was 63% vs. 91% for noncarriers (p = 0.04). For CaNO patients, mutation carriers had 75% S-year disease-free survival vs. 96% for noncarriers (p = 0.01). Twenty-one of the mutation carriers had undergone prophylactic oophorectomy, prior to or within 6 months of diagnosis in 13 cases. All but I relapse occurred in the I S who had kept their ovaries, (p < 0.01); no relapse occurred in those who had removed the ovaries within 6 months (p = 0.04) Contralateral cancer was more frequently observed in mutation noncarriers, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. Our findings support the concept that BRCA1 cancer is biologically different from other inherited breast cancers. While current screening protocols appear satisfactory for the majority of women at risk of familial breast cancer, this may not be the case for BRCA1 mutation carriers. The observed effect of oophorectomy was striking.
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