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Sökning: WFRF:(Hagmar L)

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1.
  • Bjerre, P., et al. (författare)
  • A randomized trial of basing treatment on human papillomavirus and/or cytology results in low-grade cervical lesion triage
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. - : Elsevier. - 1097-6868 .- 0002-9378. ; 199:1, s. 24 e1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare management algorithms that base treatment with loop electrosurgical excision procedure on human papillomavirus and/or repeat Papanicolaou test smear results. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized trial that referred 674 women with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions cytology results, detected in organized screening to treatment either (1) if they were positive in a repeat Papanicolaou test smear and/or a human papillomavirus test or (2) if they were positive in the repeat Papanicolaou test smear test only. Women who tested positive were treated, regardless of colposcopic findings. RESULTS: There were 208 of 337 (62%) women who were treated in the human papillomavirus /Papanicolaou test smear group (187/337 because of HPV positivity) and 138 of 337 (41%) in the Papanicolaou test smear only group. Histopathologically diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse was found among 112 of 337 (33.2%) women in the human papillomavirus/Papanicolaou test smear group compared with 85 of 337 (25.2%) women in the Papanicolaou test smear only group (P < .05). Twenty-one women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ had normal colposcopy. CONCLUSION: For adequate cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ sensitivity, the decision to use loop electrosurgical excision procedure needs to be based on human papillomavirus testing results and should not exclude women with normal colposcopy.
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2.
  • Allen, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • HLA DQ-DR haplotype and susceptibility to cervical carcinoma : indications of increased risk for development of cervical carcinoma in individuals infected with HPV 18
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Tissue Antigens. - 0001-2815 .- 1399-0039. ; 48:1, s. 32-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association of HLA class II DQB1 and DRB1 alleles with the development of cervical carcinoma was studied in 150 Swedish patients using PCR-based HPV and HLA typing. The association of cervical carcinoma with alleles encoding the DQ3 antigen, previously found among German and Norwegian patients, was not observed in the Swedish patients. Five DQ-DR haplotypes were indicated to be positively associated with development of cervical carcinoma in the Swedish patients. Two of these HLA associations were specific for HPV 18 infected patients, suggesting that the ability of the oncogenic HPV 18 to cause more rapid-transit tumors than other high risk HPV types may be due to a deficiency in antigen presentation by the HLA molecules encoded by carried on these haplotypes.
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4.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Fracture incidence in GH-deficient patients on complete hormone replacement including GH
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681 .- 0884-0431. ; 22:12, s. 1842-1850
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fracture risk in GHD patients is not definitely established. Studying fracture incidence in 832 patients on GH therapy and 2581 matched population controls, we recorded a doubled fracture risk in CO GHD women, but a significantly lower fracture risk in AO GHD men. Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture incidence in patients with confirmed growth hormone deficiency (GHD) on replacement therapy (including growth hormone [GH]) compared with population controls, while also taking potential Confounders and effect modifiers into account. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred thirty-two patients with GHD and 2581 matched population controls answered a questionnaire about fractures and other background information. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% CI for first fracture were estimated. The median time on GH therapy for childhood onset (CO) GHD men and women was 15 and 12 yr, respectively, and 6 and 5 yr for adult onset (AO) GHD men and women, respectively. Results: A more than doubled risk (IRR, 2.29; 95 % CI 1.23-4.28) for nonosteoporotic fractures was recorded in women with CO GHD, whereas no risk increase was observed among CO GHD men (IRR, 0.61) and AO GHD women (IRR, 1.08). A significantly decreased incidence of fractures (IRR, 0.54; 95% C1, 0.34-0.86) was recorded in AO GHD men. Conclusions: Increased fracture risk in CO GHD women can most likely be explained by interaction between oral estrogen and the GH-IGF-I axis. The adequate substitution rate of testosterone (90%) and GH (94%) may have resulted in significantly lower fracture risk in AO GHD men.
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5.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Nonfatal stroke, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients on hormone replacement including growth hormone
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 92:9, s. 3560-3567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The impact of long-term GH replacement on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients is unknown. Objective: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2D) and cardioprotective medication were compared between cohorts of GH-deficient (GHD) patients and population controls. Design and Participants: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events was estimated retrospectively from questionnaires in 750 GHD patients and 2314 matched population controls. A prevalence of T2D and cardioprotective medication was recorded at the distribution of questionnaires. Time since first pituitary deficiency to start of GH therapy was 4 and 2 yr, and time on GH therapy was 6 yr for GHD women and men, respectively. Results: Lifelong incidence of nonfatal stroke was tripled in GHD women and doubled in GHD men, but a decline was seen in both genders during periods after first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD, during which most patients had GH therapy. The lifelong incidence of nonfatal cardiac events declined in GHD men during first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD periods. GHD women had a higher prevalence of T2D and lipid-lowering medication, whereas GHD men had a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication. Conclusions: The declined risks of nonfatal stroke in both genders and of nonfatal cardiac events in GHD men during periods on GH replacement may be caused by prescription of cardioprotective drugs and 6-yr GH replacement. GHD women had an increased prevalence of T2D, partly attributed to higher body mass index and lower physical activity.
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6.
  • Norppa, H., et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomal aberrations and SCEs as biomarkers of cancer risk
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. - : Elsevier. - 1879-2871. ; 600:1-2, s. 37-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have suggested that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), but not of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), predicts cancer risk. We have further examined this relationship in European cohorts comprising altogether almost 22,000 subjects, in the framework of a European collaborative project (CancerRiskBiomarkers). The present paper gives an overview of some of the results of the project, especially as regards CAs and SCEs. The results confirm that a high level of CAs is associated with an increased risk of cancer and indicate that this association does not depend on the time between CA analysis and cancer detection, i.e., is obviously not explained by undetected cancer. The present evidence indicates that both chromatid-type and chromosome-type CAs predict cancer, even though some data suggest that chromosome-type CAs may have a more pronounced predictive value than chromatid-type CAs. CA frequency appears to predict cancers at various sites, although there seems to be a particular association with gastrointestinal cancers. SCE frequency does not appear to have cancer predictive value, at least partly due to uncontrollable technical variation. A number of genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, and folate metabolism affect the level of CAs and might collectively contribute to the cancer predictivity of CAs. Other factors that may influence the association between CAs and cancer include, e.g., exposure to genotoxic carcinogens and internal generation of genotoxic species. Although the association between CA level and cancer is seen at the group level, an association probably also exists for the individual, although it is not known if an individual approach could be feasible. However, group level evidence should be enough to support the use of CA analysis as a tool in screening programs and prevention policies in occupational and environmental health.
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7.
  • Tuominen, R, et al. (författare)
  • Susceptibility factors and DNA adducts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of aluminium smelter workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Archives of Toxicology. - : Springer. - 0340-5761. ; 76:3, s. 178-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formation of DNA adducts as a result of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied in 98 potroom workers from an aluminium smelting plant and in 55 blue-collar workers without occupational PAH exposure. DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was used for quantitation of individual PAH-DNA adducts by P-32-postlabelling/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Four individual DNA adducts (denoted A, B, C and D) were quantified in 141 of a total of 153 subjects. Genetic polymorphisms for cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1), Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, N-acetyltransferase 2, glutathione transferases M1, P1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1, respectively) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase I (NQ01) were analysed. For 52 subjects, analysis of mRNA inducibility of CYP1A1 was performed. No statistically significant differences in the levels of total or individual DNA adducts A, C and D were found between potroom workers and control subjects. All potroom workers and the subgroup of potroom workers who reported to never/sometimes use personal respiratory protection (n = 72) were found to have a significantly higher likelihood of having high levels of adduct B than control subjects [odds ratio (OR) = 3.4 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.3-9.2, and OR=4.2 with 95% CI 1.6-11.5, respectively]. In the subgroup, levels of adducts A and B were found to be significantly higher among workers with employment time of less than 6 months (n = 5). Also, the levels of the individual DNA adducts were to some extent modified by genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 and by CYP1A1 inducibility. In conclusion, levels of adduct B, identified by P-32-postlabelling/HPLC methodology as an indicator of PAH exposure in aluminium production, were modified by the use of respiratory protection, length of employment and genetic polymorphisms.
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8.
  • Alexandrie, A K, et al. (författare)
  • CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 21:4, s. 669-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Certain human biotransformation enzymes have been implicated in the formation and scavenging of the ultimate reactive metabolites, the diolepoxides, from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, performed on aluminum smelter workers, we have analyzed airborne PAH, the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine, and genotypes for biotransformation enzymes involved in PAH metabolism. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between external exposure and biomarkers of exposure and to investigate to what extent genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes can explain interindividual variation in urinary 1-OHP levels. DNA was prepared from blood samples from 98 potroom workers and 55 controls and altogether eight polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The 1-OHP excretion was found to correlate significantly (P 100-fold) and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the variables that could determine differences in excretion. The variation could, to some degree, be explained by differences in exposure to airborne particulate-associated PAHs, the use of personal respiratory protection devices, smoking habits and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes. The part of the variance that could be explained by differences in biotransformation genotypes seemed to be of the same order of magnitude as the variance explained by differences in exposure. In the control group as well as in the occupationally exposed group, the highest 1-OHP levels were observed in individuals carrying the CYP1A1 Ile/Val genotype who were also of the GSTM1 null genotype. The results show that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that it may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs.
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9.
  • Dalene, Marianne, et al. (författare)
  • MDA in plasma as a biomarker of exposure to pyrolysed MDI-based polyurethane: correlations with estimated cumulated dose and genotype for N-acetylation
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - : Springer. - 1432-1246 .- 0340-0131. ; 68:3, s. 9-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The object of this study was to investigate whether exposure of pipe-layers to thermal degradation products of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) could be assessed by analysing 4,4-methylenedianiline (MDA) in hydrolysed plasma and urine, and whether the genotype for N-acetylation affected these biomarker levels. Blood and urine samples were drawn from 30-pipe-layers who had been welding polyurethane (PUR) insulated pipes during the preceding 3 months. MDA in hydrolysed plasma and urine was determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, and genotype for N-acetylation was analysed with a polymerase chain reaction technique. MDA in plasma was detected in 18 of the 30 pipe-layers. Their plasma concentrations of MDA varied from 0.05 to 8.48 micrograms/l. There was a significant negative correlation between time since last welding of PUR-insulated pipes and P-MDA (rs = 0.50, P = 0.005). There was also a significant positive correlation between the estimated number of welded PUR-insulated pipes during the preceding 3 months and P-MDA (rs = 0.68, P = < 0.001). No significant association between genotype of N-acetylation and P-MDA was observed in a multiple regression analysis when adjustment was made for the estimated cumulative exposure to thermal degradation products of MDI. MDA in urine was detected in only four of the 30 pipe-layers. These four subjects had been welding PUR pipes on the same day as the sampling, or on the day before. The present results indicate the spot plasma samples analysed for MDA may give a rather good estimate of exposure to MDI during the preceding months. P-MDA, but not U-MDA, therefore seems to be a useful biomarker of long-term exposure to MDI. The individual N-acetylation capacity did not affect the plasma levels of MDA.
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  • [1]234567Nästa

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