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Sökning: WFRF:(Hagström Hannes)

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  • Hagstrom, H., et al. (författare)
  • Morbidity, risk of cancer and mortality in 3645 HFE mutations carriers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Liver International. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1478-3223 .- 1478-3231. ; 41:3, s. 545-553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims Mutations in the HFE gene can lead to hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) and have been suggested to increase the risk of extra-hepatic diseases, especially breast and colorectal cancer. Here we investigated long-term outcomes of Swedish patients with HFE mutations. Methods We identified 3645 patients with a homozygous p.C282Y (62%) or a compound heterozygous p.C282Y/p.H63D (38%) mutation from eight centres in Sweden between 1997 and 2017. These were matched 1:10 by age, sex and county of residence to reference individuals from the general population. We ascertained incident outcomes until the end of 2017 by linkage to national registers. Studied outcomes were HH, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), breast cancer (in women), colorectal cancer, type 1 and 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, Parkinson's disease and mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for these outcomes. Results Median age at diagnosis was 52 years, 44% were females. During a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, we found an increased risk for HCC, HH, cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and death. Excess mortality was only seen in men. No increased risk was seen for colorectal or breast cancer. Liver-related outcomes were rare, with a cumulative incidence of HFE mutation carriers in a university hospital setting had an increased risk for mortality in men, along with increased risks of cirrhosis, HCC, diabetes type 2, and osteoarthritis. In general, the absolute risk for adverse outcomes was low and no increased risk for colon or breast cancer was observed.
  • Hagström, Hannes, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal obesity increases the risk and severity of NAFLD in offspring
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 75:5, s. 1042-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Maternal obesity has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring, but its relationship to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear.Methods: Through the nationwide ESPRESSO cohort study we identified all individuals <= 25 years of age in Sweden with biopsy verified NAFLD diagnosed between 1992 and 2016 (n = 165). These were matched by age, sex, and calendar year with up to 5 controls (n = 717). Through linkage with the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) we retrieved data on maternal early-pregnancy BMI, and possible confounders, in order to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for NAFLD in offspring.Results: Maternal BMI was associated with NAFLD in offspring: underweight (aOR 0.84; 95% CI 0.14-5.15), normal weight (reference, aOR 1), overweight (aOR 1.51; 0.95-2.40), and obese (aOR 3.26; 1.72-6.19) women. Severe NAFLD (biopsy-proven fibrosis or cirrhosis) was also more common in offspring of overweight (aOR 1.94; 95% CI 0.96-3.90) and obese (aOR 3.67; 95% CI 1.61-8.38) mothers. Associations were similar after adjusting for maternal pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. Socio-economic parameters (smoking, mother born outside the Nordic countries and less than 10 years of basic education) were also associated with NAFLD in offspring but did not materially alter the effect size of maternal BMI in a multivariable model.Conclusions: This nationwide study found a strong association between maternal overweight/obesity and future NAFLD in offspring. Adjusting for socio-economic and metabolic parameters in the mother did not affect this finding, suggesting that maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for NAFLD in offspring.Lay summary: In a study of all young persons in Sweden with a liver biopsy consistent with fatty liver, the authors found that compared to matched controls, the risk of fatty liver was much higher in those with obese mothers. This was independent of available confounders and suggests that the high prevalence of obesity in younger persons might lead to a higher risk of fatty liver in their offspring.
  • Järbrink-Sehgal, M. Ellionore, et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle Factors in Late Adolescence Associate With Later Development of Diverticular Disease Requiring Hospitalization
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 16:9, s. 1474-1480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of diverticular disease on society is high and is increasing with an aging population. It is therefore important to identify risk factors for disease development or progression. Many lifestyle behaviors during adolescence affect risk for later disease. We searched for adolescent lifestyle factors that affect risk of diverticular disease later in life. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men (age, 18-20 y) conscripted to military service in Sweden from 1969 through 1970, with a follow-up period of 39 years. All conscripts underwent an extensive mental and physical health examination and completed questionnaires covering alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of recreational drugs; cardiovascular fitness was assessed using an ergometer cycle at the time of conscription. Outcome data were collected from national registers to identify discharge diagnoses of diverticular disease until the end of 2009. We performed Cox regression analysis to determine whether body mass index, cardiovascular fitness, smoking, use of recreational drugs, alcohol consumption, and risky use of alcohol, at time of conscription are independent risk factors for development of diverticular disease. RESULTS: Overweight and obese men had a 2-fold increased risk of diverticular disease compared to normal-weight men (hazard ratio, 2.00; P < .001). A high level of cardiovascular fitness was associated with a reduced risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .009). Smoking (P = .003), but not use of recreational drugs (P = .11), was associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization. Risky use of alcohol, but not alcohol consumption per se, was associated with a 43% increase in risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men in Sweden, we associated being overweight or obese, a smoker, a high-risk user of alcohol, and/or having a low level of cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence with an increased risk of developing diverticular disease requiring hospitalization later in life. Improving lifestyle factors among adolescents might reduce the economic burden of diverticular disease decades later.
  • Larsson, T, et al. (författare)
  • Conjoint effects of serum calcium and phosphate on risk of total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in the community
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 30:2, s. 333-U379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Hyperphosphatemia is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relations of circulating calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Pi) to long-term mortality risk in the community require further investigation. Methods and Results: Associations of serum Ca and Pi to mortality were evaluated in a community-based cohort of 2176 men (mean age, 50.1 years). During follow-up (median, 29.8 years), 1009 men died, and 466 of these deaths resulted from cardiovascular causes. In Cox proportional hazards models, serum Pi and [CaxPi] were independent predictors of total mortality (hazard ratio per SD, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P=0.03; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P=0.01) and cardiovascular mortality (1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18; P=0.01; 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19; P=0.008). Serum Ca was associated with risk of total mortality (1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P=0.02) and noncardiovascular mortality (1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21; P=0.04). Results were consistent after multivariate adjustments in subsamples of individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 90 mL/min and low-to-normal serum Ca and Pi. Conclusion: Circulating Ca and Pi levels are associated with risks of total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in the community, and their conjoint effects are additive. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate whether Ca and Pi are modifiable risk factors in the general population. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:333-339.)
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Adaptation of the charlson comorbidity index for register-based research in sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epidemiology. - : Dove Press. - 1179-1349. ; 13, s. 21-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Comorbidity indices are often used to measure comorbidities in register-based research. We aimed to adapt the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) to a Swedish setting. Methods: Four versions of the CCI were compared and evaluated by disease-specific experts. Results: We created a cohesive coding system for CCI to 1) harmonize the content between different international classification of disease codes (ICD-7,8,9,10), 2) delete incorrect codes, 3) enhance the distinction between mild, moderate or severe disease (and between diabetes with and without end-organ damage), 4) minimize duplication of codes, and 5) briefly explain the meaning of individual codes in writing. Conclusion: This work may provide an integrated and efficient coding algorithm for CCI to be used in medical register-based research in Sweden.
  • Montagnese, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • A pilot study of golexanolone, a new GABA-A receptor-modulating steroid antagonist, in patients with covert hepatic encephalopathy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 75:1, s. 98-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Golexanolone is a novel small molecule GABA-A receptor-modulating steroid antagonist under development for the treatment of cognitive and vigilance disorders caused by allosteric over-activation of GABA-A receptors by neurosteroids. It restored spatial learning and motor coordination in animal models of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and mitigated the effects of intravenous allopregnanolone in healthy adults in a dose-dependent fashion. Herein, we report data on the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of golexanolone in adult patients with cirrhosis.Methods: Following single/multiple ascending dose studies, adults with Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis and abnormal continuous reaction time (CRT) on screening were randomized to 3 weeks’ dosing with golexanolone (10, 40 or 80 mg BID) or placebo. CRT, psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), animal naming test (ANT), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and electroencephalogram (mean dominant frequency [MDF]; delta+theta/alpha+beta ratio [DT/AB]) were obtained at baseline, 10, and 21 days.Results: Golexanolone exhibited satisfactory safety and PK. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 12 and 33 patients randomized to placebo or golexanolone, respectively. By prespecified analyses, golexanolone was associated with directionally favourable changes vs. placebo in ESS (p = 0.047), MDF (p = 0.142) and DT/AB (p = 0.021). All patients also showed directionally favourable changes in CRT, PHES and ANT, but with no statistical difference between golexanolone and placebo. Post hoc analyses taking into account the variability and improvement in CRT, PHES and ANT observed between screening and baseline suggested an efficacy signal by cognitive measures as well.Conclusion: Golexanolone was well tolerated and associated with improvement in cognitive performance. These results implicate GABA-A receptor-modulating neurosteroids in the pathogenesis of HE and support the therapeutic potential of golexanolone.Lay summary: Many patients with cirrhosis experience subtle but disabling cognitive problems, including sleepiness and poor attention span, that impair their ability to be gainfully employed or carry out activities of daily living. This pilot study tested the hypothesis that these problems with cognition, for which there is no approved treatment, might be improved by an experimental drug, golexanolone, designed to normalize the function of receptors which inhibit brain function. The results of this study suggest that golexanolone is well tolerated and may improve cognition, as reflected by measures of sleepiness, attention span and brain wave activity, paving the way for future larger studies of this promising experimental drug.Clinical trial registration number: EudraCT 2016-003651-30.
  • Shang, Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease does not increase dementia risk although histology data might improve risk prediction
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JHEP Reports. - : Elsevier. - 2589-5559. ; 3:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in the general population, but its association with dementia is unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of dementia related to NAFLD, and to determine whether histological parameters could improve the predictive capacity of a conventional risk model for dementia in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Methods: A retrospective matched cohort study of 656 NAFLD patients underwent liver biopsy at 2 hospitals between 1971 and 2009. Up to 10 individuals (controls) from the general population (n = 6,436) were matched for age, sex, and municipality to each patient. Dementia was ascertained from National registers until 2014. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios for dementia with 95% confidence intervals. In the biopsy cohort, the discriminative power of adding histological markers to a conventional risk model was assessed by Harrells C-index and compared with a likelihood-ratio test. Results: During a mean follow-up of 19.7 +/- 8.7 years, 3.3% of the NAFLD patients and 4.9% of the controls developed dementia (p = 0.07). Overall, NAFLD was not significantly associated with incident dementia. In the biopsy cohort, the model of conventional risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases) had a C-index of 0.912 to predict incident dementia. Adding individual histological parameters significantly increased the prediction of dementia, with the most pronounced improvement for fibrosis stage (C-index = 0.938, p <0.05). Conclusions: Although NAFLD was not associated with the risk of dementia, we found that adding histological markers to a conventional risk model for dementia enhanced the predictive capacity, indicating a shared metabolic origin. Lay summary: Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dementia are increasing in prevalence because of a more sedentary lifestyle, increased prevalence of obesity and population ageing. However, the link between these 2 diseases is not well studied. We investigated the association between NAFLD and the risk of dementia and found no association. However, liver histology parameters, especially fibrosis, could significantly improve the prediction of dementia risk. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL).
  • Sharma, Rajani, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Mortality Risk in Autoimmune Hepatitis : A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study With Histopathology
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 19:12, s. 2636-2647.e13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and liver failure, but data on overall mortality in AIH are conflicting.METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden from 1969-2017 of 6,016 adults with AIH and 28,146 matched general population reference individuals. AIH was defined by a combination of a medical diagnosis of AIH plus a liver biopsy from any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Through Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific death. Liver transplant was included in our main outcome of death.RESULTS: During follow-up, 3,185 individuals with AIH died (41.4/1000 person-years) compared with 10,477 reference individuals (21.9/1000 person-years). The 10-year cumulative incidence of death was 32.3% (95%CI=31.1-33.6) for AIH individuals and 14.1% (95%CI=13.7-14.5) for reference individuals. This corresponded to an adjusted HR of 2.29 (95%CI=2.17-2.41), which remained elevated ≥20 years follow-up. AIH individuals with cirrhosis on biopsy had a high risk of death (HR=4.55; 95%CI=3.95-5.25), while mortality in patients with fibrosis, inflammation without fibrosis, or necrosis did not differ. Portal hypertension and overlap with cholestatic liver diseases were also associated with death. AIH was associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.27; 95%CI=1.15-1.40), liver disease (HR=66.24; 95%CI=48.19-91.03) and extrahepatic malignancy (HR=1.69; 95%CI=1.51-1.89). In a sibling comparison, AIH individuals remained at increased risk of death.CONCLUSION: AIH is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of death. Risks were particularly high in individuals with cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and overlap with cholestatic liver disease.
  • Simon, Tracey G., et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk in Patients With Biopsy-Confirmed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : A Population-Based Cohort Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : Wiley-Interscience Publishers. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 74:5, s. 2410-2423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Recent studies link NAFLD to an increased incidence of HCC and extrahepatic cancers. However, earlier studies were small or lacked liver histology, which remains the gold standard for staging NAFLD severity.Approach and Results: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all adults with histologically defined NAFLD in Sweden from 1966 to 2016 (N = 8,892). NAFLD was defined from prospectively recorded liver histopathology submitted to all 28 Swedish pathology departments and categorized as simple steatosis, nonfibrotic NASH, noncirrhotic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. NAFLD patients were individually matched to <= 5 general population controls without NAFLD by age, sex, calendar year, and county (N = 39,907). Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we calculated multivariable adjusted HRs (aHRs) and 95% CIs. Over a median of 13.8 years, we documented 1,691 incident cancers among NAFLD patients and 6,733 among controls. Compared with controls, NAFLD patients had significantly increased overall cancer incidence (10.9 vs. 13.8 per 1,000 person-years [PYs]; difference = 2.9 per 1,000 PYs; aHR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]), driven primarily by HCC (difference = 1.1 per 1,000 PYs; aHR, 17.08 [95% CI, 11.56-25.25]). HCC incidence rates increased monotonically across categories of simple steatosis, nonfibrotic NASH, noncirrhotic fibrosis, and cirrhosis (0.8 per 1,000 PYs, 1.2 per 1,000 PYs, 2.3 per 1,000 PYs, and 6.2 per 1,000 PYs, respectively; P-trend < 0.01) and were further amplified by diabetes (1.2 per 1,000 PYs, 2.9 per 1,000 PYs, 7.2 per 1,000 PYs, and 15.7 per 1,000 PYs, respectively). In contrast, NAFLD was associated with modestly increased rates of pancreatic cancer, kidney/bladder cancer, and melanoma (differences = 0.2 per 1,000 PYs, 0.1 per 1,000 PYs, and 0.2 per 1,000 PYs, respectively), but no other cancers.Conclusions: Compared with controls, patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD had significantly increased cancer incidence, attributable primarily to HCC, whereas the contribution of extrahepatic cancers was modest. Although HCC risk was highest with cirrhosis, substantial excess risk was also found with noncirrhotic fibrosis and comorbid diabetes.
  • Simon, Tracey G., et al. (författare)
  • Mortality in biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease : results from a nationwide cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 70:7, s. 1375-1382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Population-based data are lacking regarding the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality across the complete histological spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Design: This nationwide, matched cohort study included all individuals in Sweden with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (1966 to 2017; n=10 568). NAFLD was confirmed histologically from all liver biopsies submitted to Sweden's 28 pathology departments, after excluding other etiologies of liver disease, and further categorised as, simple steatosis, non-fibrotic steatohepatitis (NASH), non-cirrhotic fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD cases were matched to <= 5 general population comparators by age, sex, calendar year and county (n=49 925). Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs (aHRs) and 95% CIs.Results: Over a median of 14.2 years, 4,338 NAFLD patients died. Compared with controls, NAFLD patients had significantly increased overall mortality (16.9 vs 28.6/1000 PY; difference=11.7/1000 PY; aHR=1.93, 95% CI=1.86 to 2.00). Compared with controls, significant excess mortality risk was observed with simple steatosis (8.3/1000 PY, aHR=1.71, 95% CI=1.64 to 1.79), non-fibrotic NASH (13.4/1000 PY, aHR=2.14, 95% CI=1.93 to 2.38), non-cirrhotic fibrosis (18.4/1000 PY, aHR=2.44, 95% CI=2.22 to 2.69) and cirrhosis (53.6/1000 PY, aHR=3.79, 95% CI=3.34 to 4.30)(p trend <0.01). This dose-dependent gradient was similar when simple steatosis was the reference (p trend <0.01). The excess mortality associated with NAFLD was primarily from extrahepatic cancer (4.5/1000 PY, aHR=2.16, 95% CI=2.03 to 2.30), followed by cirrhosis (2.7/1000 PY, aHR=18.15, 95% CI=14.78 to 22.30), cardiovascular disease (1.4/1000 PY, aHR=1.35, 95% CI=1.26 to 1.44) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (1.2/1000 PY, aHR=11.12, 95% CI=8.65 to 14.30).Conclusion: All NAFLD histological stages were associated with significantly increased overall mortality, and this risk increased progressively with worsening NAFLD histology. Most of this excess mortality was from extrahepatic cancer and cirrhosis, while in contrast, the contributions of cardiovascular disease and HCC were modest.
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