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Sökning: WFRF:(Hall Spencer Jason M.)

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  • Abbafati, Cristiana, et al. (författare)
  • 2020
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Brauko, Kalina M., et al. (författare)
  • Marine Heatwaves, Sewage and Eutrophication Combine to Trigger Deoxygenation and Biodiversity Loss: A SW Atlantic Case Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science. - 2296-7745. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are a major concern worldwide due to their increasing impacts in recent years, and these extreme events may trigger deoxygenation of coastal waters affected by sewage and eutrophication. Here we investigate the combined effects of MHWs and nutrient enrichment on the water quality and biodiversity of the Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Brazil). We used historical (1994–2020) sea surface temperature data from satellites and in situ physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess temporal trends. Oxygen levels have been decreasing whilst phosphorus levels have been increasing in the bay. During the austral summer of 2020 a regional sea surface heatwave was detected by satellite, lasting for 9 days and coinciding with our research cruise. During this period, seawater temperatures reached 29.8°C and anoxia was detected for the first time in the bay. A decrease in macrobenthic and phytoplankton community richness correlated with decreases in oxygen both through time and towards more urbanized areas. Overall, poor wastewater treatment is a key stressor that combined with MHWs to degrade coastal waters. Mitigation strategies are needed to minimize the impact of MHWs, including improved sewage treatment, restoration and conservation of wetlands and the use of nature-based technologies to promote coastal ecosystem recovery.
  • Campbell, Bruce M., et al. (författare)
  • Agriculture production as a major driver of the Earth system exceeding planetary boundaries
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology & Society. - : Resilience Alliance. - 1708-3087. ; 22:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or safe limits: land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, and introduction of novel entities. Two planetary boundaries have been fully transgressed, i.e., are at high risk, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows, and agriculture has been the major driver of the transgression. Three are in a zone of uncertainty i.e., at increasing risk, with agriculture the major driver of two of those, land-system change and freshwater use, and a significant contributor to the third, climate change. Agriculture is also a significant or major contributor to change for many of those planetary boundaries still in the safe zone. To reduce the role of agriculture in transgressing planetary boundaries, many interventions will be needed, including those in broader food systems.
  • Brodie, Juliet, et al. (författare)
  • The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 4:13, s. 2787-2798
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seaweed and seagrass communities in the northeast Atlantic have been profoundly impacted by humans, and the rate of change is accelerating rapidly due to runaway CO2 emissions and mounting pressures on coastlines associated with human population growth and increased consumption of finite resources. Here, we predict how rapid warming and acidification are likely to affect benthic flora and coastal ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic in this century, based on global evidence from the literature as interpreted by the collective knowledge of the authorship. We predict that warming will kill off kelp forests in the south and that ocean acidification will remove maerl habitat in the north. Seagrasses will proliferate, and associated epiphytes switch from calcified algae to diatoms and filamentous species. Invasive species will thrive in niches liberated by loss of native species and spread via exponential development of artificial marine structures. Combined impacts of seawater warming, ocean acidification, and increased storminess may replace structurally diverse seaweed canopies, with associated calcified and noncalcified flora, with simple habitats dominated by noncalcified, turf-forming seaweeds.
  • Peña, Viviana, et al. (författare)
  • Lithothamnion (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta) in the changing Arctic and Subarctic : DNA sequencing of type and recent specimens provides a systematics foundation*
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European journal of phycology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0967-0262 .- 1469-4433. ; 56:4, s. 468-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coralline red algae in the non-geniculate genera Clathromorphum, Phymatolithon and Lithothamnion are important benthic ecosystem engineers in the photic zone of the Arctic and Subarctic. In these regions, the systematics and biogeography of Clathromorphum and Phymatolithon have mostly been resolved whereas Lithothamnion has not, until now. Seventy-three specific and infraspecific names were given to Arctic and Subarctic Lithothamnion specimens in the late 19th and early 20th century by Frans R. Kjellman and Mikael H. Foslie. DNA sequences from 36 type specimens, five historical specimens, and an extensive sampling of recent collections resulted in the recognition of four Arctic and Subarctic Lithothamnion species, L. glaciale, L. lemoineae, L. soriferum and L. tophiforme. Three genes were sequenced, two plastid-encoded, rbcL and psbA, and the mitochondrial encoded COI-5P; rbcL and COI-5P segregated L. glaciale from L. tophiforme but psbA did not. Partial rbcL sequences obtained from type collections enabled us to correctly apply the earliest available names and to correctly place the remainder in synonymy. We were unable to sequence another 22 type specimens, but all of these are more recent names than those that are now applied. It is difficult to identify these species solely on morpho-anatomy as they can all occur as encrusting corallines or as maerl (rhodoliths). We demonstrate the importance of sequencing historical type specimens by showing that the recently proposed North-east Atlantic L. erinaceum is a synonym of one of the earliest published Arctic species of Lithothamnion, L. soriferum, itself incorrectly placed in synonymy under L. tophiforme based on morpho-anatomy. Based on sequenced specimens, we update the distributions and ecology of these species.
  • Hilmi, nathalie, et al. (författare)
  • Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification’s impacts
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Marine Biology. - 0025-3162. ; 160:8, s. 1773-1787
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.
  • Kamenos, Nicholas A., et al. (författare)
  • Maerl grounds provide both refuge and high growth potential for juvenile queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis L.)
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. - : Elsevier. - 0022-0981 .- 1879-1697. ; 313:2, s. 241-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human damage to biogenic substrata such as maerl has been receiving increasing attention recently. Maerl forms highly biodiverse and heterogeneous habitats composed of loose-lying coralline red algae, which fulfil nursery area prerequisites for queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and other invertebrates. The benefits obtained by queen scallops utilising maerl were poorly understood, so we used both laboratory predation and field tethering experiments to investigate the refuge and growth potential provided by pristine live maerl (PLM) grounds over other common substrata. In aquaria, more juvenile queen scallops (<35 mm shell height) survived on PLM than on gravel substrata in the presence of the crab Carcinus maenas or the starfish Asterias rubens. Field tethering experiments indicated similar survivorship of juvenile queen scallops on PLM and gravel; additionally, their growth rates were similar on both substrata. PLM allows scallops to seek refuge from predators and position themselves to optimise their food supply. Other bivalve refugia have been shown to provide poor food supply as a consequence of their high heterogeneity, yet maerl grounds provide a 'win-win' scallop nursery area coupling refuge availability with high food supply. 
  • Kamenos, Nicholas A., et al. (författare)
  • Nursery-area function of maerl grounds for juvenile queen scallops Aequipecten opercularis and other invertebrates
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series. - : Inter-Research. - 0171-8630 .- 1616-1599. ; 274, s. 183-189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The services provided by coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests and sea-grass beds are becoming increasingly recognised, yet the functional role of maerl beds has not been addressed. Maerl forms highly biodiverse habitats composed of loose-lying coralline red algae which build up over thousands of years. These carbonate-rich deposits occur in photic areas with strong water movement; they have a widespread global distribution yet remain one of the most overlooked shallow-water marine habitats, with little known about the ecosystem services maerl may provide. Our diving research in Scotland has shown that pristine live maerl (PLM) grounds fulfil nursery area prerequisites for commercial populations of queen scallops Aequipecten opercularis and other invertebrates, such as the soft clam Mya arenaria, the sea urchins Psammechinus miliaris and Echinus esculentus, and the starfish Asterias rubens, more effectively than impacted dead maerl and other common substrata, The complex architecture of maerl beds attracts high densities of these juvenile invertebrates, which use PLM grounds as nursery areas in preference to adjacent substrata. Considering its global distribution, it is highly likely that ecosystem services provided by maerl are considerable. Maerl is easily damaged and killed by a variety of human activities, yet its protection would maintain vital nursery area function, benefiting commercial fishery yields and, pivotally, regional biodiversity.
  • Kamenos, Nicholas A., et al. (författare)
  • Small-scale distribution of juvenile gadoids in shallow inshore waters; what role does maerl play?
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science. - : Elsevier. - 1054-3139 .- 1095-9289. ; 61:3, s. 422-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The indirect effects of demersal fisheries, such as habitat degradation, are currently thought to be impacting gadoid stocks. Maerl fulfils nursery area prerequisites for several invertebrate species, so its role in similar ecosystem service provision for gadoids has been addressed. Juvenile cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), and pollack (Pollachius pollachius) in shallow (< 7 m) inshore waters were surveyed with fykenets and scuba off western Scotland over a period of 12 months. Juvenile densities were highest from September to November, and at that time, significantly more were present during the day and associated with maerl (that lacked macroalgal cover) than with heavily vegetated rocky and gravel substrata. Juvenile cod were present throughout the year, whereas saithe appeared in July, and pollack from September to January. With its abundance of food, maerl probably has a high holding capacity for juvenile gadoids, and thus is an important part of the inshore nursery system. 
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