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Sökning: WFRF:(Hallinan G.)

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  • Hoare, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • The cradle of life and the SKA
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science - Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array, AASKA 2014, Giardini Naxos, Italy, 9-13 June 2014. - 1824-8039.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We provide an overview of the exciting capabilities of the SKA in the Cradle of Life theme. With the deployment of the high frequency band 5 receivers, the phase 1 of the SKA can conduct headline science in the study of the earliest stages of grain growth in proto-planetary disks. SKA1-MID can map the 2 cm continuum emission at a resolution of 4 au in the nearest systems and therefore begin to probe the distribuion of cm-sized particles across the snow line. This frequency range will also enable deep searches for pre-biotic molecules such as amino acids from pre-stellar cores to the cold, outer regions of proto-planetary disks where cometary material forms. The lowest frequency capabilities of SKA1 can be used to examine the magnetic fields of exo-planets via their auroral radio emission. This gives unique insight into their interiors and could potentially detect exo-moons. Across the full frequency range, the SKA1 will also carry out systematic, volume-limited searches of exo-planet systems for signals from technologically advanced civilizations. The sensitivity of SKA1 means that these only need to be at the level of typical airport radar signals in the nearest systems. Hence, the SKA1 can conduct high impact science from the first steps on the road to planets and life, through areas affecting the habitability of planets, and ultimately, to whether we are alone in the Galaxy. These inspirational themes will greatly help in the effort to bring SKA1 science to a wide audience and to ensure the progression to the full SKA.
  • Kasliwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Illuminating gravitational waves : A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 358:6370, s. 1559-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.
  • Eastwood, Michael W., et al. (författare)
  • The Radio Sky at Meter Wavelengths: M-mode Analysis Imaging with the OVRO-LWA
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 156:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A host of new low-frequency radio telescopes seek to measure the 21 cm transition of neutral hydrogen from the early universe. These telescopes have the potential to directly probe star and galaxy formation at redshifts 20 ≳ z ≳ 7 but are limited by the dynamic range they can achieve against foreground sources of low-frequency radio emission. Consequently, there is a growing demand for modern, high-fidelity maps of the sky at frequencies below 200 MHz for use in foreground modeling and removal. We describe a new wide-field imaging technique for drift-scanning interferometers: Tikhonov-regularized m-mode analysis imaging. This technique constructs images of the entire sky in a single synthesis imaging step with exact treatment of wide-field effects. We describe how the CLEAN algorithm can be adapted to deconvolve maps generated by m-mode analysis imaging. We demonstrate Tikhonov-regularized m-mode analysis imaging using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array (OVRO-LWA) by generating eight new maps of the sky north of δ = -30° with 15′ angular resolution at frequencies evenly spaced between 36.528 and 73.152 MHz and ∼800 mJy beam-1thermal noise. These maps are a 10-fold improvement in angular resolution over existing full-sky maps at comparable frequencies, which have angular resolutions ≥2°. Each map is constructed exclusively from interferometric observations and does not represent the globally averaged sky brightness. Future improvements will incorporate total power radiometry, improved thermal noise, and improved angular resolution due to the planned expansion of the OVRO-LWA to 2.6 km baselines. These maps serve as a first step on the path to the use of more sophisticated foreground filters in 21 cm cosmology incorporating the measured angular and frequency structure of all foreground contaminants.
  • Morin, J., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple views of magnetism in cool stars
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten. - : Wiley. - 0004-6337 .- 1521-3994. ; 334:1-2, s. 48-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnetic fields are regarded as a crucial element for our understanding of stellar physics. They can be studied with a variety of methods which provide complementary - and sometimes contradictory - information about the structure, strength and dynamics of the magnetic field and its role in the evolution of stars. Stellar magnetic fields can be investigated either with direct methods based on the Zeeman effect or through the observation of activity phenomena resulting from the interaction of the field with the stellar atmosphere. In this Cool Stars 17 Splinter Session we discussed the results obtained by the many ongoing studies of stellar activity and direct studies of surface magnetic fields, as well as the state-of-the-art techniques on which they are based. We show the strengths and limitations of the various approaches currently used and point out their evolution as well as the interest of coupling various magnetism and activity proxies. (C) 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
  • Anderson, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS). III. The First Radio-discovered Tidal Disruption Event, CNSS J0019+00
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 903:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the discovery of a nuclear transient with the Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS), a dedicated radio transient survey carried out with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). This transient, CNSS J001947.3+003527, exhibited a turn-on over a timescale of less than or similar to 1 yr, increasing in flux density at 3 GHz from <0.14 mJy in 2014 February to 4.4 0.1 mJy in 2015 March, reaching a peak luminosity of around 2015 October. The association of CNSS J0019+00 with the nucleus (Gaia and our very-long baseline interferometry positions are consistent to within 1 pc) of a nearby S0 Seyfert galaxy at 77 Mpc, together with the radio spectral evolution, implies that this transient is most likely a tidal disruption event (TDE). Our equipartition analysis indicates the presence of a similar to 15,000 km s(-1) outflow, having energy similar to 10(49) erg. We derive the radial density profile for the circumnuclear material in the host galaxy to be proportional to R-2.5. All of these properties suggest resemblance with radio-detected thermal TDEs like ASASSN-14li and XMMSL1 J0740-85. No significant X-ray or optical emission is detected from CNSS J0019+00, although this may simply be due to the thermal emission being weak during our late-time follow-up observations. From the CNSS survey we have obtained the first unbiased measurement of the rate of radio TDEs, R(>500 mu Jy) of about 2 x 10(-3) deg(-2), or equivalently a volumetric rate of about 10 Gpc(-3) yr(-1). This rate implies that all-sky radio surveys such as the VLA Sky Survey and those planned with ASKAP, will find many tens of radio TDEs over the next few years.
  • Baran, N., et al. (författare)
  • The XXL Survey IX. Optical overdensity and radio continuum analysis of a supercluster at z=0.43
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 592
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 3 GHz (10 cm) toward a sub-field of the XXL-North 25 deg(2) field targeting the first supercluster discovered in the XXL Survey. The structure has been found at a spectroscopic redshift of 0.43 and extending over 0.degrees 35x0.degrees 1 on the sky. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we present the 3 GHz VLA radio continuum observations, the final radio mosaic and radio source catalogue, and, second, we perform a detailed analysis of the supercluster in the optical and radio regimes using photometric redshifts from the CFHTLS survey and our new VLA-XXL data. Our final 3 GHz radio mosaic has a resolution of 3 ''.2 x 1 ''.9, and encompasses an area of 41'x41' with rms noise level lower than similar to 20 mu Jy beam(-1). The noise in the central 15'x15' region is approximate to 11 mu Jy beam(-1). From the mosaic we extract a catalogue of 155 radio sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >= 6, eight of which are large, multicomponent sources, and 123 (79%) of which can be associated with optical sources in the CFHTLS W1 catalogue. Applying Voronoi tessellation analysis (VTA) in the area around the X-ray identified supercluster using photometric redshifts from the CFHTLS survey we identify a total of seventeen overdensities at z(phot) = 0.35-0.50, 7 of which are associated with clusters detected in the XMM-Newton XXL data. We find a mean photometric redshift of 0.43 for our overdensities, consistent with the spectroscopic redshifts of the brightest cluster galaxies of seven X-ray detected clusters. The full VTA-identified structure extends over similar to 0.degrees 6x0.degrees 2on the sky, which corresponds to a physical size of similar to 12x4 Mpc(2) at z = 0.43. No large radio galaxies are present within the overdensities, and we associate eight (S/N > 7) radio sources with potential group/cluster member galaxies. The spatial distribution of the red and blue VTA-identified potential group member galaxies, selected by their observed g -r colours, suggests that the clusters are not virialised yet, but are dynamically young, as expected for hierarchical structure growth in a Lambda CDM universe. Further spectroscopic data are required to analyse the dynamical state of the groups.
  • Mooley, K., et al. (författare)
  • A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 554:7691, s. 207-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GW170817 was the first gravitational-wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger. It was accompanied by radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum and localized to the galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of 40 megaparsecs. It has been proposed that the observed γ-ray, X-ray and radio emission is due to an ultra-relativistic jet being launched during the merger (and successfully breaking out of the surrounding material), directed away from our line of sight (off-axis). The presence of such a jet is predicted from models that posit neutron-star mergers as the drivers of short hard-γ-ray bursts. Here we report that the radio light curve of GW170817 has no direct signature of the afterglow of an off-axis jet. Although we cannot completely rule out the existence of a jet directed away from the line of sight, the observed γ-ray emission could not have originated from such a jet. Instead, the radio data require the existence of a mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow moving towards us. This outflow could be the high-velocity tail of the neutron-rich material that was ejected dynamically during the merger, or a cocoon of material that breaks out when a jet launched during the merger transfers its energy to the dynamical ejecta. Because the cocoon model explains the radio light curve of GW170817, as well as the γ-ray and X-ray emission (and possibly also the ultraviolet and optical emission), it is the model that is most consistent with the observational data. Cocoons may be a ubiquitous phenomenon produced in neutron-star mergers, giving rise to a hitherto unidentified population of radio, ultraviolet, X-ray and γ-ray transients in the local Universe.
  • Mooley, K., et al. (författare)
  • Superluminal motion of a relativistic jet in the neutron-star merger GW170817
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 561:7723, s. 355-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The binary neutron-star merger GW1708171was accompanied by radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum2and localized2to the galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance3of about 41 megaparsecs from Earth. The radio and X-ray afterglows of GW170817 exhibited delayed onset4–7, a gradual increase8in the emission with time (proportional to t0.8) to a peak about 150 days after the merger event9, followed by a relatively rapid decline9,10. So far, various models have been proposed to explain the afterglow emission, including a choked-jet cocoon4,8,11–13and a successful-jet cocoon4,8,11–18(also called a structured jet). However, the observational data have remained inconclusive10,15,19,20as to whether GW170817 launched a successful relativistic jet. Here we report radio observations using very long-baseline interferometry. We find that the compact radio source associated with GW170817 exhibits superluminal apparent motion between 75 days and 230 days after the merger event. This measurement breaks the degeneracy between the choked- and successful-jet cocoon models and indicates that, although the early-time radio emission was powered by a wide-angle outflow8(a cocoon), the late-time emission was most probably dominated by an energetic and narrowly collimated jet (with an opening angle of less than five degrees) and observed from a viewing angle of about 20 degrees. The imaging of a collimated relativistic outflow emerging from GW170817 adds substantial weight to the evidence linking binary neutron-star mergers and short γ-ray bursts.
  • Zhang, Qicheng, et al. (författare)
  • Multiepoch VLBI of L Dwarf Binary 2MASS J0746+2000AB: Precise Mass Measurements and Confirmation of Radio Emission from Both Components
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 897:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surveys have shown that up to 1/10th of all ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) are appreciable radio emitters, with their emission attributed to a combination of gyrosynchrotron radiation and the electron cyclotron maser instability. 2M J0746+2000AB is a close stellar binary comprised of an L0 and L1.5 dwarf that was previously identified as a source of 5 GHz radio emission. We used Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to precisely track the radio emission over seven epochs in 2010-2017, and found both components to be radio emitters - the first such system identified - with the secondary component as the dominant source of emission in all epochs. The previously identified 2.07 hr periodic bursts were confirmed to originate from the secondary component, although an isolated burst was also identified from the primary component. We additionally fitted the VLBI absolute astrometric positions jointly with existing relative orbital astrometry derived from optical/infrared observations with Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to determine the orbital parameters of the two components. We found the masses of the primary and secondary optical components to be 0.0795 ± 0.0003 M o˙, and 0.0756 ± 0.0003 M o˙, respectively, representing the most precise mass estimates of any UCDs to date. Finally, we place a 3σ upper limit of 0.9 M jup au on the mass and separation of planets orbiting either of the two components.
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