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Sökning: WFRF:(Halonen P)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Bouyoucef, S E, et al. (författare)
  • Poster Session 2 : Monday 4 May 2015, 08
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging. - 2047-2404 .- 2047-2412. ; 16 Suppl 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Virtanen, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and change in body weight : analysis of individual-participant data from 19 cohort studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 44:6, s. 1368-1375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To examine the relation between long working hours and change in body mass index (BMI). Methods: We performed random effects meta-analyses using individual-participant data from 19 cohort studies from Europe, US and Australia (n = 122,078), with a mean of 4.4-year follow-up. Working hours were measured at baseline and categorised as part time (<35 h/week), standard weekly hours (35–40 h, reference), 41–48 h, 49–54 h and ≥55 h/week (long working hours). There were four outcomes at follow-up: (1) overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) or (2) overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) among participants without overweight/obesity at baseline; (3) obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) among participants with overweight at baseline, and (4) weight loss among participants with obesity at baseline. Results: Of the 61,143 participants without overweight/obesity at baseline, 20.2% had overweight/obesity at follow-up. Compared with standard weekly working hours, the age-, sex- and socioeconomic status-adjusted relative risk (RR) of overweight/obesity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.90–1.00) for part-time work, 1.07 (1.02–1.12) for 41–48 weekly working hours, 1.09 (1.03–1.16) for 49–54 h and 1.17 (1.08–1.27) for long working hours (P for trend <0.0001). The findings were similar after multivariable adjustment and in subgroup analyses. Long working hours were associated with an excess risk of shift from normal weight to overweight rather than from overweight to obesity. Long working hours were not associated with weight loss among participants with obesity. Conclusions: This analysis of large individual-participant data suggests a small excess risk of overweight among the healthy-weight people who work long hours. 
  • Joensuu, Heikki, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Adjuvant Trastuzumab for a Duration of 9 Weeks vs 1 Year With Concomitant Chemotherapy for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer The SOLD Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:9, s. 1199-1206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. While the standard duration of trastuzumab treatment is 12 months, the benefits and harms of trastuzumab continued beyond the chemotherapy are unclear.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant trastuzumab continued beyond chemotherapy in women treated with up-front chemotherapy containing a taxane and trastuzumab.Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, randomized (1:1) clinical trial including women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Chemotherapy was identical in the 2 groups, consisting of 3 cycles of 3-weekly docetaxel (either 80 or 100 mg/m2) plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Thereafter, no trastuzumab was administered in the 9-week group, whereas controls received trastuzumab to complete 1 year of administration. Disease-free survival (DFS) was compared between the groups using a Cox model and the noninferiority approach. The estimated sample size was 2168 patients (1-sided testing, with a relative noninferiority margin of 1.3). From January 3, 2008, to December 16, 2014, 2176 patients were accrued from 7 countries.Intervention: Docetaxel plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide in both groups. Controls continued trastuzumab to 1 year.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary objective was DFS; secondary objectives included distant disease–free survival, overall survival, cardiac DFS, and safety.Results: In the 2174 women analyzed, median age was 56 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-64) years. The median follow-up was 5.2 (IQR, 3.8-6.7) years. Noninferiority of the 9-week treatment could not be demonstrated for DFS (hazard ratio, 1.39; 2-sided 90% CI, 1.12-1.72). Distant disease–free survival and overall survival did not differ substantially between the groups. Thirty-six (3%) and 21 (2%) patients in the 1-year and the 9-week groups, respectively, had cardiac failure; the left ventricle ejection fraction was better maintained in the 9-week group. An interaction was detected between the docetaxel dose and DFS; patients in the 9-week group treated with 80 mg/m2 had inferior and those treated with 100 mg/m2 had similar DFS as patients in the 1-year group.Conclusions and Relevance: Nine weeks of trastuzumab was not noninferior to 1 year of trastuzumab when given with similar chemotherapy. Cardiac safety was better in the 9-week group. The docetaxel dosing with trastuzumab requires further study.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593697
  • Söderbergh, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and clinical associations of 10 defined autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 89:2, s. 557-562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of autoantibodies against nine intracellular enzyme autoantigens, namely 21-hydroxylase, side-chain cleavage enzyme (SCC), 17 alpha-hydroxylase, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), tyrosine hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 1A2, and against the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor, was assessed in 90 patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the presence of autoantibodies as independent predictors for different disease manifestations. Reactivities against 21-hydroxylase and SCC were associated with Addison's disease with odds ratios (ORs) of 7.8 and 6.8, respectively. Hypogonadism was exclusively associated with autoantibodies against SCC with an OR of 12.5. Autoantibodies against tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 were associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with an OR of 14.9, but with low sensitivity. Reactivities against TPH and, surprisingly, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, were associated with intestinal dysfunction, with ORs of 3.9 and 6.7, respectively. TPH reactivity was the best predictor for autoimmune hepatitis, with an OR of 27.0. Hypoparathyroidism was not associated with reactivity against any of the autoantigens tested. No reactivity against the calcium-sensing receptor was found. Analysis of autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I patients is a useful tool for establishing autoimmune manifestations of the disease as well as providing diagnosis in patients with suspected disease.
  • Aguilar, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 16:3, s. R53-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERalpha-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through mechanisms that involve ERalpha transcriptional regulatory plasticity. Here, we identify VAV3 as a critical component in this process.METHODS: A cell-based chemical compound screen was carried out to identify therapeutic strategies against resistance to endocrine therapy. Binding to ERalpha was evaluated by molecular docking analyses, an agonist fluoligand assay, and short-hairpin (sh) RNA-mediated protein depletion. Microarray analyses were performed to identify altered gene expression. Western blot of signaling and proliferation markers and shRNA-mediated protein depletion in viability and clonogenic assays were performed to delineate the role of VAV3. Genetic variation in VAV3 was assessed for association with the response to tamoxifen. Immunohistochemical analyses of VAV3 were carried out to determine the association with therapy response and different tumor markers. An analysis of gene expression association with drug sensitivity was carried out to identify a potential therapeutic approach based on differential VAV3 expression.RESULTS: The compound YC-1 was found to comparatively reduce the viability of cell models of acquired resistance. This effect was probably not due to activation of its canonical target (soluble guanylyl cyclase) but instead a result of binding to ERalpha. VAV3 was selectively reduced upon exposure to YC-1 or ERalpha depletion and, accordingly, VAV3 depletion comparatively reduced the viability of cell models of acquired resistance. In the clinical scenario, germline variation in VAV3 was associated with response to tamoxifen in Japanese breast cancer patients (rs10494071 combined P value = 8.4 x 10-4). The allele association combined with gene expression analyses indicated that low VAV3 expression predicts better clinical outcome. Conversely, high nuclear VAV3 expression in tumor cells was associated with poorer endocrine therapy response. Based on VAV3 expression levels and the response to erlotinib in cancer cell lines, targeting EGFR signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy.CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes VAV3 as a biomarker and rationale signaling target to prevent and/or overcome resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.
  • Halonen, Jaana I., et al. (författare)
  • Psychological distress and sickness absence : Within- versus between-individual analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 264, s. 333-339
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Uncertainty remains whether associations for psychological distress and sickness absence (SA) observed between and within individuals differ, and whether age, gender and work-related factors moderate these associations.Methods: We analyzed SA records of 41,184 participants of the Finnish Public Sector study with repeated survey data between 2000 and 2016 (119,024 observations). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), while data on SA days were from the employers' registers. We used a hybrid regression estimation approach adjusting for time-variant confounders-age, marital status, occupational class, body mass index, job contract type, months worked in the follow-up year, job demand, job control, and workplace social capital-and time-invariant gender (for between-individual analysis).Results: Higher levels of psychological distress were consistently associated with SA, both within- and between-individuals. The within-individual association (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.68, 95% CI 1.61-1.75 for SA at high distress), however, was substantially smaller than the between-individual association (IRR 2.53, 95% CI 2.39-2.69). High levels of psychological distress had slightly stronger within-individual associations with SA among older (>45 years) than younger employees, lower than higher occupational class, and among men than women. None of the assessed work unit related factors (e.g. job demand, job control) were consistent moderators.Limitations: These findings may not be generalizable to other working sectors or cultures with different SA policies or study populations that are male dominated.Conclusions: Focus on within-individual variation over time provides more accurate estimates of the contribution of mental health to subsequent sickness absence.
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